World HistoryAncient Rome Unit 4
Origin of the Etruscans • Between 900 and 500 BCE • Called themselves theRasenna, the Greeks called themTyrrhenioi; theRomans called them theEtruscans. • Came from eastern Mediterranean, possibly Asia Minor. • Their land was calledEtruria.
The Land of the Etruscans
Etruscan Religion • Polytheistic. • Believed that the destiny of manwas determined by the whims of the gods. • Believed in prophecy and readingthe signs of nature byaugurs. • Believed in predestination.
Etruscan Art • Art created for religious or practicalpurposes. • Most famous pieces created out ofterracotta. • Many murals andfrescoeson tomb walls. • Lively depictions of life—dancing, games,music, and feasting. • Pottery at first copies of Greek works. • Later, created their own bronze pottery. • Bronze crafts [mirrors, bowls, candelabra].
Dance, Dance, Spin ! Double Flutist
Rome is located in the center of the Italian peninsula. This location helped the Romans expand in Italy and beyond. The Apennine Mountains run down the center of Italy but are not too rugged. Fertile plains supported a growing population. Ancestors of the Romans settled along the Tiber River. These villages eventually grew into Rome. Geography and Rome
How was Greco-Roman civilization formed? The Romans borrowed heavily from Greek culture after they conquered Greece. At the same time, Roman generals carried achievements of Roman civilization to conquered lands. The blending of Roman, Hellenistic, and Greek traditions produced Greco-Roman civilization. Trade and travel during the Pax Romana helped spread this new civilization.
The Roman Republic: In 509 B.C., the Romans drove out the Etruscans and set up a new government, which they called a republic. In a republic, some officials are chosen by the people. In the early republic, the senate dominated the government. Its members were patricians, or members of the landholding class. Little by little, the plebeians, or common people, gained some political power. These included the right to elect their own officials, called tribunes. The tribunes could veto, or block, laws that they felt harmed plebeians. More than 2,000 years later, the framers of the United States Constitution would adapt Roman ideas of government, such as the senate, the veto, and checks on political power.
3 Important Groups in the Roman Republic: • The Senate • The Assembly of the Centuries • The Assembly of the Tribes
The Roman Senate • The Senate was the most powerful group in the government. • Composed of three hundred men • Controlled public funds • Controlled political appointments • Determined foreign policy • Sometimes acted as a court
The Assembly of the Centuries • Divided its voters into voting units called centuries. • Each century had 100 members • There were 193 centuries in the Assembly
The Assembly of the Tribes • Made up of citizens grouped into 35 tribes according to where they lived • The group was controlled by the plebeians, or commoners.
Patricians and Plebeians • Patricians – aristocrats of the early Roman Republic. • The word patrician comes from the Latin word pater, which means father. • This word was also used to describe the members of the Roman Senate.
Patricians came from wealthy families. • They controlled the government, army, and state religion.
Plebeians – the commoners in the early Roman Republic. • Included freed slaves, peasant farmers, and dependents of patricians. • Denied many rights.
For many years, plebeians were unable to vote, hold public office, or become priests. • They were not allowed to marry outside their class.
Expansion in Italy Why was Rome’s expansion in Italy successful? By about 270 B.C., Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula. • Skilled diplomacy • Loyal, well-trained army • Treated defeated enemies fairly • Gave rights to conquered people
WOMEN FAMILY Women gained greater freedom and influence over the centuries. Some women ran businesses. Most worked at home, raising families. The family was the basic unit of Roman society. Male was head of household and had absolute authority. RELIGION EDUCATION Gods and goddesses resembled those of Greeks and Etruscans. Religious festivals inspired sense of community. Romans built many temples for worship. Both girls and boys learned to read and write. Education was highly valued. Roman Society:
Roman Religion • The religion of Rome was centered around trying to please the gods. • Polytheism – the worship of many gods. • Each god was linked to a particular human activity. • Every activity honoring the gods had to be carried out in the appropriate space. • Each god has an assigned space.
Around 400 B.C., plebeians were given the right to marry patricians, run for consul, and be eligible for priesthood. • In 287 B.C., the comitia tributa, an assembly of all the people, was given the power to make laws that bound everybody.
Pompeii and Vesuvius • Pompeii was an ancient city in Italy that became famous by its destruction following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. • Pompeii became a Roman city in 91 B.C. • It was located on a plateau of ancient lava near the Bay of Naples, less than one mile from Mount Vesuvius.
The Colosseum • Romans marveled at the shows put on at the Colosseum, ancient Rome’s largest stadium. • Spectators watched • the slaughter of exotic animals, gladiators battling to the death, and mock naval battles.
An Architectural Marvel! • The Colosseum was an architectural marvel. Its floor was about the size of modern football field. • As many as 50,000 spectators could crown onto the Colosseum’s marble and wooden benches. • There, they were protected from the hot Roman sun by a giant canvas roof.
Spartacus • Rome needed workers to maintain its wealth. • The first conquered people were welcomed as Roman citizens, but after 265bc, many conquered people were auctioned off as slaves. • A great deal of the grandeur of Rome was created by the grueling labor of slaves.
A slave named Spartacus led a revolt against the Romans 73bc. • Spartacus built an army of thousands of soldiers from slaves he and his followers liberated. • The slaves resisted the Roman army for more than two years and plundered the Italian countryside.
The Roman councils sent an army of 40,000 soldiers to defeat the slave revolt. • Spartacus was milled in battle, but six thousand of his soldiers were taken prisoner and crucified. • Crucifixion is a form of execution where the prisoner is nailed to a cross and left to die a slow, painful death. • Crosses stretched for miles along the Apian Way, one of Rome’s most traveled roadways. • They served as a gruesome reminder of the strength and the brutality of the Roman army.
In the summer of A.D. 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted violently. • Hot ashes, stones, and cinders rained down on Pompeii. • Remains of about 2,000 victims out of a population of 20,000 have been found in excavations. • About three-fourths of the city of Pompeii has been uncovered by archeologists.
Decline of the Republic: Conquered people forced to work as slaves Huge quantities of grain Small farmers no longer needed to produce food New wealth increases corruption Farmers flock to Rome and other cities looking for jobs Greed and self-interest replace virtues of simplicity, hard work, and devotion to duty Civil wars
From Republic to Empire: Civil wars Julius Caesar forces the Roman senate to make him dictator. Caesar institutes reforms to try to solve Rome’s many problems. Caesar is killed by enemies who feared that he planned to make himself king of Rome. More civil wars break out. Octavian defeats Mark Antony in a struggle for power. The Roman senate gives Octavian the title of Augustus, or Exalted One, and declares him first citizen. The 500-year republic comes to an end. The age of the Roman empire begins.
Winning an Empire After gaining control of the Italian peninsula, Rome began to build an empire around the Mediterranean Sea. • The Romans followed a policy of imperialism, establishing control over foreign lands and peoples. • Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor became Roman provinces, or lands under Roman rule.
When Hannibal was born in 247 BCE, his birthplace Carthage was losing a long and important war. • Carthage had been the Mediterranean's most prosperous seaport and it possessed wealthy provinces. • However, it had suffered severe losses from the Romans in the First Punic War.
Prelude to Hatred • After Rome's victory, it stripped Carthage of its most important province, Sicily. • As a result of this chaos, a civil war broke out in Carthage, and Rome used this opportunity to seize Sardinia and Corsica as well. • These events must have made a great impression on the young Hannibal.
An Influential Father • Hannibal's people originally came from the Middle East. • He was the oldest son of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca • Hamilcar took the ten-year old boy to Iberia in 237 B.C.. • Hannibal and his father (Hamilcar) crossed to Spain with no army.
True or False? • The Romans believed that Hannibal's father forced his son to promise eternal hatred against the Romans. • In fact, it is believed that at age 9 Hannibal made a promise to his father to destroy the Romans. • This might only by an invention, but there may be some truth in the story: after all, the Carthaginians had good reasons to hate their enemies.