Chapter 1: The First Americans Prehistory to 1492
I. Early Peoples Where were the 1st people migrating from? They migrated from Asia to North, Central, & South America during the last Ice Age How long did this take? B. Centuries – people spread out across the Americas as far east as the Atlantic Ocean & as far south as the tip of S. America What route did they take? C. They crossed a land bridge, Beringia, from Siberia to present day Alaska. This bridge is now under the Bering Strait. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Beringia_land_bridge-noaagov.gif
I. Early Peoples What is a nomad? D. A person who moves from place to place in search of food What types of hunters were Native Americans? They were skilled hunters that used every part of the animal for food, clothing, weapons, & tools
II. Settling Down What happened when large animals disappeared? Native Americans hunted smaller game after the mammoths died, and ate plants & berries What were the new food sources for Native Americans? B. Learning to plant & raise crops People living near the coast or rivers learned to fish What did the settlers do? D. They formed villages & communities. Some people remained nomadic hunters
III. Cities & Empires: Olmec What were the most advanced civilizations? Located in present-day Mexico & in Central & S. America; Olmec, the Maya, the Aztec, & Inca The Olmec people lived in what is now Mexico, Guatemala, & Honduras, b/t 1500 b.c. & 3000 b.c. What were the Olmec people like? They built stone pavement, drainage systems, & stone monuments.
III. Cities & Empires: Mayan Where did the Mayans live? D. present-day Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, & Belize E. They built large cities, each having at least one stone pyramid What did the people do? What was the largest city? F. Tikal (ti-call) was the largest Mayan city & had 6 pyramid G. A theocracy – or a society ruled by religious leaders What type of govt. was it?
III. Cities & Empires: Mayan What were the Mayan gods like? H. They believed that their gods controlled all that happened on Earth. Atop the pyramids were religious & govt. centers I. They Maya were skilled astronomers & developed a writing system called hieroglyphics Interesting info. What did they trade? J. maize, vegetables, jade, turquoise, jewelry & cacao beans K. No one knows – it happened around A.D. 800, but the descendants of the Maya still live in parts of Mexico. What caused the decline of the Maya?
III. Cities & Empires: Aztec What was Tenochtilan? L. Home of the Aztec. Founded in 1325. An island near present-day Mexico City What is a causeway? M. Linked Tenochtilan to the mainland Who were the Aztec? N. They were warriors & conquered nearly all rivial communities. Military empire. O. weapons, maize, cotton cloth, & copper & also forced their captives to work as slaves What did Aztec take from conquered people? P. Their society was organized around religion, & they sacrificed thousands of prisoners in religious ceremonies What did the Aztecs do to please the gods?
III. Cities & Empires: Inca Where were the Inca? Q. Western highlands of S. American – A.D. 1200 Interesting info. R. Largest of early American civilizations. 3,000 mile empire What was the population? S. More than 9 million people T. 10,000 miles of paved roads, record-keeping system, written language, terracing to plant crops on slopes What did they do?
IV. North American Peoples Who were the Hohokam? A. Lived in present-day Arizona. B. A.D. 300 to 1200. They build irrigation channels to bring water to hot, dry land Who were the Anasazi? C. They lived in the Four Corners (UT, CO, AZ, & NM) from A.D. 200 & 1300 What did the Anasazi build? D. Stone & cliff dwellings. E. Lived in central N.America. They built mounds of earth that looked like Aztec pyramids. Who were the Mound Builders?
IV. North American Peoples People of the West? F. Ute & Shoshone – used resources of the forest & the sea as they hunted & gathered People of the Southwest? G. Hopi, Acoma, Zuni – adobe brick homes, raised maize, beans, & squash. The Navajo & Apache People of the Plains? H. Nomads; hunted & farmed & built tents called tee-pees. They tamed wild horses. I. Iroquois & Cherokee formed complex political systems of governing. People of the East?
Discussion Questions Why did these people spread out across the Americas? They were looking for particular climates or land terrain as well as enough resources so they could survive. How did early Native Americans learn to adapt to their environment? They used the resources around them for food, clothing, and shelter. The hunted, fished, planted, and traveled from place to place search of their needs. Why do you think early American civilizations developed along large bodies of water? Early people settled near water as a means of transportation and a way to far,. If they needed to flee quickly, they could navigate along the waters Why do you think the Maya believed that the gods controlled what happened on Earth? It was an easy way to explain what they did not understand, such as the change of seasons or the weather They went to war & conquered neighboring communities. They stole weapons from the conquered people to help build their empire. How did the Aztec build a military empire? It was the largest of the early civilizations, stretching for about 3,000 miles. The Inca developed paved roads, a common language, a record-keeping system, & terracing for farming. Why is the Inca considered a great civilization? Why do you think the dwellings of these early Native Americans were large & massive? They thought that if they reached high in the sky they would be nearer to the gods. Also if they were visible from far away, and could accommodate a large group of people for living quarters, and for religious ceremonies. Why do you think the different native American groups developed a wide variety of cultures? Recognition that regional climate and resources created the need for different lifestyles. Climate and resources affected whether groups farmed, fished, or hunted, were nomadic or permanently settled, and what type of shelters they build.