RTEC-A Week 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

rtec a week 11 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
RTEC-A Week 11 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
RTEC-A Week 11

play fullscreen
1 / 162
Download Presentation
RTEC-A Week 11
277 Views
reece-watkins
Download Presentation

RTEC-A Week 11

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. RTEC-AWeek 11 Patient Skills & Communication

  2. Patient Communication • Interacting with the patient • Interacting with family and friends • Methods of Effective Communication • Age as a factor in Patient Interactions

  3. Radiologic Technologist • Helping others • Working with people • Making a difference • Thinking critically • Demonstrating creativity • Achieving results

  4. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  5. Patient Dignity • Patients are usually in the lower levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy • Must always be remembered and respected • Difficult to maintain dignity when ill

  6. Why is this important?PATIENT NEEDS • Altered states of consciousness • Environment • Fear of unknown • Vulnerable • Coping Mechanisms

  7. Classification of Patients • Inpatients • Outpatients • Family • Friends

  8. Verbal Humor Paralanguage Body Language Touch Palpation Professional Appearance Physical Presence Visual Contact Methods of Communication

  9. Verbal Communication

  10. Communication thru Humor

  11. Paralanguage • Defines all of the audio information in a conversation beyond word choice • Simply listening to someone’s voice, even if you can’t make out the words, conveys their emotional state

  12. Body Language • You could be talking to someone and your body language will convey something else entirely. • Make eye contact occasionally you show an interest in that person and in what he or she is saying. • A smile sends a positive message. Smiling adds warmth and confidence about you. • Arms crossed or folded over your chest say that you have shut other people out and have no interest in them or what they are saying. • Placing your arms at your side can make you look and feel confident and relaxed to other people around you.

  13. Touch and Palpation

  14. Radiographer’s Responsibility • Introduction • Explanation of exam • Inform patient how they will receive their results • Risks of examination

  15. Rad Tech’s Role in Clinical Hx • Extract as much history as possible • Radiologists often do not even speak with the patient. • Radiologist can be focus on anatomy of interest

  16. Desirable Qualities for Establishing Open Dialogue • Respect • Genuineness • Empathy • Polite • Professional demeanor

  17. Data Collection • Objective: Signs that can be seen • Subjective: Perceived by the affected individual

  18. Questioning Skills • Open-ended questions • Facilitation – encourages pt to elaborate • Silence – give pt time to remember • Probing questions – focus interview, provide more information • Repetition – rewording, clarifies info • Summarization – verifies accuracy

  19. Leading Questions This is an UNDESIRABLE method of questioning. • Introduces bias to history

  20. Chief Complaint • Focuses attention to the single most important issue. • Patients often have many complaints • Focus on primary reason for exam

  21. You never know what you are going to get?

  22. Special Condition Patients • Traumatized Patients • Visually Impaired Patients • Speech and Hearing Impaired Patients • Non-English Speaking Patients • Mentally Impaired Patients • Substance Abusers

  23. Gerontology • The study of aging and diseases of the elderly. • By the end of the 20th century 33 million, more than 12% of total population. • In 1900 only 4%, of population

  24. Key to a Successful Exam • Plan of action • Systematic problem-solving process • Assessment of data • Setting a goal • Establishing a plan • Safety in completing assignment • Evaluating the work

  25. Communication • The key to a successful exam for Technologist and Patient.

  26. Human Diversity

  27. What is Human Diversity? • Is also known as cultural diversity. • It means the inherent differences among people. • It addresses the entirety of the ways people are different and alike.

  28. Age Disability Economic status Education Geographic location Organizational level Political affiliation Sexual orientation Ethnicity Family status First language Gender Lifestyle Physical characteristics Religion Work style or ethic Characteristics of Human Diversity

  29. Globalization People go into other countries for: • Work • School • Medical care • Visit / Vacation • Live / Relocate • Refuge / Safety

  30. Globalization’s Effect • Nation, societies and businesses have become multicultural or cross cultural • Strategies must be employed to understand cultural differences • Strategies needed to mediate conflicts • A concerted effort toward Cultural competency

  31. Significant Diversity Traits • Age • Ethnicity • Race • Gender or sexual orientation • Mental or physical disability

  32. Age • Cultures assign different values • Baby Boomers (1946 – 1964) • 75 million born • Overall healthy and educated • Will be in the work force longer • Age biases in western society • Valuing you over age • Viewing aging as a “bad” thing • Forgetting contributions offered by the aging • Considering seniors as mentally inferior

  33. Ethnicity and National Origin • Ethnicity refers to a person’s racial, national, religious, linguistic and cultural heritage. • Overcoming Linguistic Differences • Bilingual staff • Medical interpreters • Encouraging bilingualism • Forms in different languages • Many different cultures as demonstrated in everyday life and by statistical data: U.S. Census 2000.

  34. Ethnocentrism and Racism • Ethnocentrism is the belief that norms and values of their culture should be standard • Racism is the belief that one race or culture is superior to others

  35. Male vs. Female 1900 female roles Today's women Glass ceiling Gender role stereotyping Gender identity Sexual orientation Heterosexual Homosexual Bisexual Ksix Homophobia Gender or Sexual Orientation

  36. Mental or Physical Disability • Mental or physical ability is the capacity to perform cognitive and psychomotor tasks with average ability • Those with disabilities have been shunned • Seen as objects or assistance, protection and treatment • 600 million or 10% of the world have some form of disability

  37. Elements of Cultural Competency • Valuing Diversity • Possessing the capacity for cultural self assessment • Having a consciousness of the dynamics of cross cultural interaction • Institutionalizing cultural knowledge • Developing adaptations of service based on an understanding of multiculturalism

  38. Empathetic Practices • Communication • Assessment and communication • Negotiating

  39. Areas of Cultural Diversity related to Health Care • Communication • Space • Time • Environmental control • Biologic Variations • Social organizations

  40. Patient Vital SignsMedical EmergenciesandInfection Control

  41. Homeostasis • A constancy in the internal environment of the body • Naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival • Primary mechanisms: • Heartbeat • Blood pressure • Body temperature • Respiratory rate • Electrolyte balance

  42. Vital Signs • Body Temperature • Respiratory Rate • Pulse / Heart Rate • Blood Pressure • Sensorium (mental alertness)

  43. Importance of Vital Signs • Indicates the patient’s immediate condition • Can show improvement due to treatment • Can show a decline in condition

  44. Body Temperature • Normal temperature: 98.6 ° F • 1° - 2°F daily variation • Still considered normal: 97.7 °F – 99.5 °F • Human body functions within a narrow range of temperature variations • Humans can survivebetween 93.2 ° F and 106 ° F

  45. Thermoregulation Shivering when cold Sweating when hot

  46. Measuring Body Temperature • Oral • Rectal • Axillary • Tympanic • Temporal

  47. Hyperthermia Fever, febrile Temperature higher than 99.5 °F Hypothermia below normal range of 97.7 °F Due to Environment Medically induced Damage to hypothalamus Abnormalities in Body Temperature

  48. Respiratory Rate • Respiratory System delivers oxygen to the body’s tissues & eliminates carbon dioxide • Pt will die without the removal of CO2 and addition of O2 • Major muscle of ventilation: diaphragm • Measured in • “breaths per minute” • Adults: 12 – 20 bpm • Children: 20 – 30 bpm • Newborns: 30 – 60 bpm

  49. Abnormalities of Respiratory Rate • Tachypnea • Greater than 20 breaths per minute (adult) • Bradypnea – decrease is breathing • Dyspnea- difficulty breathing • Apnea- no breathing