CANADA What do you remember?
Who or what are the following? Queen Elizabeth II – Canada’s Head of State Sir John A. Macdonald – Canada’s 1st PM Michaelle Jean – Canada Governor-General
Stephane Dion – Leader of the Official Opposition Dalton McGuinty – Current Ontario Premier Stephen Harper – Current PM of Canada
A Mountie! Lacrosse: Canada’s Other National Sport… The Bluenose Why are symbols important in any nation?
What battle took place in Canada in 1759? • The Plains of Abraham • Where did this battle occur? • Quebec City
What 2 nations fought in this battle? • Why did they fight? • It was part of the 7 Years War (1756-63) – they were fighting to expand their colonial empires
Who was the British general? • James Wolfe • Who was the French general? • Marquis de Montcalm • Who won?
What makes this battle important, even in 20th century Canadian history? • When the British defeated the French, the colony of New France came under British control… • New France British North America! • This Conquest was completed in 1760 • Most of the settlers – the habitants– spoke French though…but over time, more English-speaking immigrants came over, esp. from the new United States (the Loyalists - ?)
So Canada has had bicultural and bilingual issues right from the start… Lord Durham – - A Br. Politician who thought The French should be assimilatedinto English culture … - French Canada resolved to protect itself = La Survivance! Quebec Act – Created by G.B., to allow Quebec to maintain its French-Catholic culture - ?
What major event took place in Canada in 1867? • Confederation • What was it? • The Dominion of Canada was created – Canada gained sovereignty, or partial independence from G.B. Canada On July 1, 1867
Why did this happen? • The “Fathers of Confederation” thought it would be a good idea b/c… • They feared the U.S - ? • Post-Civil War – American military might… • Manifest Destiny… • Wanted to promote unity and trade w/in Canada
Gracious, my own child doesn’t recognize me! Come to your genuine poppy! Don’t it recognize its own daddy?
Why did the British allow this to happen? • Canada had been moving towards Responsible Governmentfor 20+ yrs • Queen Victoria favoured it • Canada was no longer a money maker… - ? • Br. had more profitable colonies, namely India - ?
So the 1st 4 provinces came together – Ontario, Quebec, N.S., and N.B. – and Canada became a nation • Canada took charge of internal affairs, and G.B. controlled our foreign policy (= partial sovereingty) • The first PM =
Other provinces joined…as Canada pushed to the west and east… • 1870 – Manitoba – who lived there? • Many French-speaking Metis – they feared the expansion of the new nation into their territory, so… • Red River Rebellion • Who emerged as their leader? • Louis Riel…
Riel… • What was his role in 19th century Canada? • When the rebellion ended and Manitoba became the 5th province, Riel was elected as an MP…but a mob in Ottawa prevented him from taking his seat in Parliament • He retreated to Quebec and ended up in an insane asylum • He later returned to western Canada, where he led a 2nd Northwest Rebellion, this time in Saskatchewan
Riel’s forces were defeated b/c: • “Mac” sent the NWMP to defeat Riel’s forces using the new railroad • The Native Peoples decided not to support Riel • Riel had become obsessed w/ religion and thought he was on a divine mission to save the Metis people (he prayed endlessly, went into battle w/ a cross…) • The Metis were more interested in their rights, not religion
Riel’s Trial • What was the charge? • High Treason (it was an old British crime that allowed “Mac” to use the death penalty…) • The trial was supposed to be held in Manitoba, but that could have meant a Metis jury - ? • So “Mac” had it moved to Regina – the jury was made up of 6 men (only one spoke French) • Riel’s lawyers tried to use an insanity defense - ?
Riel refused the defense and insisted on speaking himself • The jury judged him competent and found him guilty • The judge imposed the death penalty • This caused riots, esp. in Quebec • “Mac” decided to hang Riel anyway…the news spread quickly, and this caused more uproar in Quebec, where Riel was seen as a martyr
Provinces are shown by numbers Capital Cities are shown by capital letters You’ll also need to know the 5 Great Lakes, the 3 surrounding oceans, and the St. Lawrence River! Write those in yourself. 1 A J 13 12 B 11 7 K I 10 2 9 C 3 N 4 5 H G D L F 6 8 E M
1. ____________ A. ____________ Don’t forget • ____________ B. ____________ to add the • ____________ C. ____________ bodies of • ____________ D. ____________ water! • ____________ E. ____________ • ____________ F. ____________ • ____________ G. ____________ • ____________ H. ____________ • ____________ I. ____________ • ____________ J. ____________ • ____________ K. ____________ • ____________ L. ____________ • ____________ M. ____________ N. ____________