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I. The Stage is Set

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  1. I. The Stage is Set A. The Pursuit of Peace

  2. 1. ALFRED NOBEL a) Swedish inventor of dynamite

  3. b) Regretted military uses of invention c) Set up Nobel Peace Prize to reward people who worked for peace

  4. 2. Pacifism a) Opposition to all war b) Women’s suffrage organizations supported pacifism

  5. 3. Hague Tribunal a) In 1899, world leaders attended the First Universal Peace Conference. b) A World Court to settle disputes between nation

  6. B. Aggressive Nationalism 1. France & Germany a) France was bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian war

  7. b) German occupation of the border provinces of Alsace & Lorraine

  8. 2. Eastern Europe a) Pan Slavism – Nationalism shared by all Slavic Nationalities

  9. b) Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Turkey felt threaten by new nations on their borders 1) joined Central Powers

  10. C. Rivalries Among European Powers 1. Economic rivalry

  11. a) Britain felt threatened b) Germany thought the other great powers did not give them enough respect

  12. 2. Imperialism a) Competition for colonies brought France & Germany to the “brink of war”

  13. 3. Militarism and the Arms Race a) Nations made political & national alliances b) Glorification of the Military was a positive force

  14. c) “Social Darwinism” – survival of the fittest d) Fiercest competition was between Britain & Germany

  15. D. A Tangle of Alliances 1. Distrustled to treaties pledging to defend one another

  16. 2. 1882 – Triple Alliance a) Italy b) Austria – Hungary c) Germany 1. Joined to protect itself against France

  17. 3. 1914 – Germany & Austria-Hungary became known as the Central Powers

  18. 4. 1904 – France & Britain signed an Entent • Non-binding agreement to follow common policies • When Russia joined they become know as the Allies

  19. II. The Guns of August

  20. A. Assassination in Sarajevo 1. Serbian Outrage a) Viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors

  21. b) Members of Unity or Death, a Serbian terrorist group sought revenge 1) “Black Hand”

  22. 2. The Fatal Shots a) Gavrilo Princip assassinated the tyrants

  23. (1) The Archduke Francis Ferdinand & his wife

  24. (a) Heir to the Austrian throne

  25. B. The Conflict Widens 1. A harsh Ultimatum a) Austria sent Serbia a final set of demands

  26. 1) All involved must be punished 2) Must end all anti-Austrian agitation

  27. b) July 28, 1914 Austria Declared war on Serbia

  28. 2. From Capital to Capital a) German Kaiser gave full support to Austria b) Serbia asked Russia for help

  29. c) Russia began to mobilize for war d) Russia appeals to France e) Germany declares war on France

  30. 3. The Schlieffen Plan a) Italy & Britain remained neutral (1) policy of supporting neither side in a war

  31. b) General Alfred Von Schlieffen (1) Avoid a 2 front war (2) Germany had to defeat France quickly

  32. (3) Then fight Russia (4) German armies would march through Belgium & swing south behind French lines

  33. (5) Germany’s invasion of neutral Belgium forced Britain to declare war on Germany

  34. C. The Historians’ View 1. “The Guns of August” a)A widely read study of the outbreak of war by Barbara Tuchman

  35. 2. People on both sides were equally committed to military action

  36. 3. Militarism was one of the forces that led to the outbreak of war in Europe

  37. III. A New Kind of Conflict A. The Western Front

  38. 1. Stalemate a) Neither side was able to defeat the other

  39. b) Russia mobilizedforces more quickly than expected