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Training Course

Training Course. XL2 800 & XL2 980. Running Order. History of handheld XRF How it works Your XL2 parts and Accessories XL2 radiation Safety Using your XL2 Analyser Using your Analyser with your PC Advanced Settings. History of handheld XRF. From Early XRF Testing Tool to Present.

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Training Course

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  1. Training Course XL2 800 & XL2 980

  2. Running Order History of handheld XRF How it works Your XL2 parts and Accessories XL2 radiation Safety Using your XL2 Analyser Using your Analyser with your PC Advanced Settings

  3. History of handheld XRF

  4. From Early XRF Testing Tool to Present 5 kg Electronic Unit 1.5 kg Unit TN 9266 ALLOY ANALYSER 5 kg Probe 2009 8th Generation 1979 2nd Generation

  5. NITON XRF Analyzer Generations – 2007: 7th Generation 2000: NITON XL-II 2002: NITON XLi, XLp/t 1994: NITON XL 2007: NITON XL3p, XL3t

  6. Key XL2 Advantages Very easy to use – even by non-technical personnel Rugged design for real-world industrial applications  Truly nondestructive test From turn on to trigger pull to results in seconds  Confident analysis with technology from the industry leader 

  7. XL2 Specifications 3 lbs 5.8 oz (1.53 kg) 45 kV miniaturized x-ray tube Detector: High-performance semiconductor detector  Fixed-angle, color, touch-screen display USB and Bluetooth™communications

  8. How XRF Works

  9. How does XRF work? Each of the elements present in a sample produces a unique set of characteristic x-rays that is a "fingerprint" for that specific element.  XRF analysers determine the chemistry of a sample by measuring the spectrum of the characteristic x-ray emitted by the different elements in the sample when it is illuminated by x-rays.  These x-rays are emitted either from a miniaturized x-ray tube, or from a small, sealed capsule of radioactive material.

  10. How does XRF work? • A fluorescent x-ray is created when an x-ray of sufficient energy strikes an atom in the sample, dislodging an electron from one of the atom's inner orbital shells. • The atom regains stability, filling the vacancy left in the inner orbital shell with an electron from one of the atom's higher energy orbital shells. • The electron drops to the lower energy state by releasing a fluorescent x-ray, and the energy of this x-ray is equal to the specific difference in energy between two quantum states of the electron.

  11. XRF at work Atomic Level Process of Fluorescence Production

  12. XRF at work When a sample is measured using XRF, each element present in the sample emits its own unique fluorescent x-ray energy spectrum.  By simultaneously measuring the fluorescent x-rays emitted by the different elements in the sample, the XL2 can rapidly determine those elements present in the sample and their relative concentrations - in other words, the elemental chemistry of the sample.

  13. Excitation Source Macro Level X-Ray Production

  14. Technical Illustration of a NITON Analyzer DSP converts analog pulses to digital; sends to CPU. Digitized value represents original energy of characteristic X-Ray. Over measuring time, each element’s energy accumulated into a series of element/energy channels. Spectrum contains qualitative and quantitative information from the sample

  15. Detector Si PIN Detector

  16. Possible Elements measured with XRF

  17. LOD’s (Limit of Detection) XL2 Time 60s per filter Matrix Ti-based Alloys Fe-based Alloys Cu-based Alloys Sb 0.006 0.011 0.017 Sn0.005 0.009 0.014 Pd0.003 0.003 0.006 Ag 0.003 0.005 0.008 Mo 0.014 0.023 0.035 Nb0.009 0.014 0.023 Zr 0.005 0.006 0.010 Bi 0.003 0.006 0.011 Pb 0.003 0.011 0.014 Se 0.005 0.010 0.010 W 0.023 0.038 0.036 Zn 0.009 0.022 0.132 Cu 0.014 0.023 N/A Ni 0.021 0.045 0.028 Co 0.018 0.151 0.012 Fe 0.044 N/A 0.020 Mn0.039 0.045 0.020 Cr 0.036 0.010 0.013 V 0.201 0.011 0.027 Ti N/A 0.016 0.014

  18. LOD’s (Limit of Detection) XL2 GOLDD Time 60s per filter (A/S= Application specific) (N/A=Not Applicable) Matrix Al-based Alloys Ti-based Alloys Fe-based Alloys Cu-based Alloys Sb 30100 150 175 Sn 3060 90 120 Pd20 25 30 35 Ru 20 50 70 100 Mo N/A A/S A/S A/S NbN/A 200 240 320 Zr N/A 50 70 100 Bi 20 35 50 65 Pb 20 20 75 50 Se N/A 20 20 25 W 50 150 200 220 Zn 30 40 60 300 Cu 30 75 110 N/A Ni 50 150 220 110 Co 50 120 750 50 Fe 75 300 N/A 75 Mn100 250 220 75 Cr 200 500 110 100 V 500 1300 150 150 Ti 1000 N/A 250 275 S N/A N/A 100 N/A P N/A N/A 200 200 Si 700 750 425 425 Al N/A 4000 3000 3000 Mg 7500 N/A N/A N/A

  19. Your XL2 parts and accessories

  20. XL2 Battery and charger Battery Charger base Battery case Charger mains

  21. XL2 Windows, front plate Holster Prolene Windows Pelican case Front Plate

  22. XL2 test stand options Portable Test Stand Mobile Test Stand

  23. XL2 radiation Safety

  24. Radiation Safety Radiation safety Scatter Measurements Radiation safety In Beam Measurements

  25. Radiation Safety The Niton Model XL2 analyser contains an x-ray tube which emits radiation only when the user turns the x-ray tube on. When the x-ray tube is on and the shutter is open, as during a measurement, the analyser emits a directed radiation beam. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain exposures to radiation as far below dose limits as is practical. This is known as the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. For any given source of radiation, three factors will help minimize your radiation exposure: Time, Distance, and Shielding.

  26. Time The longer you are exposed to a source of radiation the longer the radiation is able to interact in your body and the greater the dose you receive. Dose increases in direct proportion to length of exposure.

  27. Distance The closer you are to a source of radiation, the more radiation strikes you. Based on geometry alone, dose increases and decreases with an inverse-squared relation to your distance from the source of radiation (additional dose rate reduction comes from air attenuation). For example, the radiation dose one foot from a source is nine times greater than the dose three feet from the source. Remember to keep your hands and all body parts away from the front end of the analyser when the shutter is open to minimize your exposure.

  28. Shielding Shielding is any material that is placed between you and the radiation source. The more material between you and the source, or the denser the material, the less you will be exposed to that radiation. Supplied or optional test stands are an additional source of shielding for analysis. A backscatter shield accessory is also available and may be appropriate in some applications.

  29. Exposures to radiation Human dose to radiation is typically measured in rem, or in one-thousandths of a rem, called millirem (mrem), 1 rem = 1000 mrem. Another unit of dose is the Sievert (Sv), 1 Sv = 100 rem. The allowable limit for occupational exposure in the U.S (and many other countries) is 5,000 mrem/year (50 mSv/year) for deep (penetrating) dose and 50,000 mrem/year (500 mSv/year) for shallow (i.e., skin) dose or dose to extremities. Deep, shallow, and extremity exposure from a properly used Niton XL2 analyser should be less than 200 mrem per year, (2.0 mSv per year) even if the analyser is used as much as 2,000 hours per year, with the shutter open continuously. The only anticipated exceptions to the 200 mrem maximum annual dose are: 1) routine and frequent analysis of plastic samples without use of a test stand, backscatter shield, or similar additional protective measures, or 2) improper use where a part of the body is in the primary beam path.

  30. Exposures to radiation cont Also, consider the use of protective accessories such as a shielded test stand or backscatter shield (or equivalent) when performing routine and/or frequent analysis of any of the following:    • light materials (such as plastic, wood, or similarly low density/low atomic mass samples)    • thin samples (such as foils, circuit boards, and wires)    • samples that are smaller than the analysis window.

  31. Exposures to radiation cont In beam dose rates were measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Reported results are based on measurement results that have been reduced to 2 significant digits by rounding up.  For example, a measurement result of 1441 would be reported as 1500. 

  32. Radiation safety cont When the lights are flashing, the primary beam is on, and radiation is being emitted from the front of the analyser. The primary beam Secondary (Scattered) Beam

  33. Using your XL2 Analyser

  34. Opening your case

  35. Inspecting your analyser

  36. Inspecting your analyser The control panel is located on the analyser's top housing, directly below the Touch Screen. The control panel consists of a 4 Way Touch Pad, an Interlock Button, and two Control Buttons, one on each side. Using either the control panel or the touch screen you may navigate through all of the analyser's screens and menus. You can control the movement of the screen cursor by pressing the 4 Way Touch Pad in one of four directions to highlight each of the menu options. The Clear/Enter button to the right of the 4 Way Touch Pad is used to select highlighted menu options. The On/Off/Escape Button both controls the power to the analyser and serves as an "escape" button. When the On/Off/Escape Button is pushed and immediately released, it functions as an "escape", and brings you back to the Main Menu from the current screen in the menu system.

  37. Replacing the Measurement Window CAUTION: Take every precaution to prevent damage to the solid beryllium surface of the tube and detector behind the analysis window.  Both the x-ray tube and detector are located directly behind the analysis window and each has a small surface of solid beryllium or beryllium oxide.  Beryllium-containing materials, in solid form and as finished parts, present no particular health hazard.  However, exposure to the dust or fumes from beryllium metal or metal oxides has the potential to cause serious health effects. WARNING Before you begin, remove the battery from your analyser! WARNING: In the event that there is known or suspected damage to the solid beryllium surface of the tube or detector, the following precautions are recommended.  Use latex or other disposable gloves for any handling or clean up of visible beryllium fragments or contamination.  Collect fragments into a thick plastic bag, seal the bag tightly with adhesive tape, and affix a label clearly indicating “Danger Beryllium”.  If there has been any inadvertent contact with skin, wash effected skin area with soap and water completely before eating, drinking, or smoking. Contact your health and safety and/or Niton UK customer support for further instruction if needed.

  38. Replacing the Measurement Window (cont) Remove the two screws holding the Measurement Window Bracket to the nose of your analyser. Remove the Measurement Window Bracket from the analyser, and turn it over, exposing the back with seal and Measurement Window. Remove the old Measurement Window from the bracket. Clean the Window area thoroughly, using a clean, guaranteed lint-free cloth and isopropyl alcohol.

  39. Replacing the Measurement Window (cont) Measurement Windows for Niton XL2 analysers can be purchased from Niton UK. The part number for these are (P/N 187-1454). Remove the backing from the Measurement Window. Place the window on the Bracket gently. Make sure the opaque portions of the window do not intrude over the large measurement hole in the Bracket. CAUTION! Do not use fingers to press window into place! Use a smooth, hard surface such as back of tweezers. Replace Window Bracket on the front of your analyser, then insert screws.

  40. Start up procedure To turn on the analyzer, depress the On/off/escape button on the control panel until the Touch Screen comes on. On startup, the screen will show by a Start Screen which will automatically count down from 4 to 0 in increments of one second. When the start up is complete, the Start Screen will be replaced by the Logon Screen. Tap anywhere on this screen to continue. The Logon Screen will be replaced by a Warning Screen, advising you that this analyser produces radiation when the lights are flashing. You must acknowledge this warning by selecting the Yes button before logging on. Selecting the No button will return you to the Logon Screen. Select your 4 digit security code, followed by the Enter button. The default password is 1-2-3-4

  41. Start up procedure After you have completed the log on procedure, the word "USER" will appear on the bottom of the screen, then the Main Menu will appear. Note that security codes are editable. This will be covered in ‘advanced settings’. There we can change passwords and set User Privileges. Please Note - Your analyser will need to set the temperature of the detector to -25ºC before it can be used. If you attempt to use the analyser before this procedure the instrument will display the warning ‘Please wait, cooling detector’. This procedure will take no longer than 60 seconds once logged in and will remain stable until the analyser is powered down.

  42. System check Every XL2 analyser will have the ‘system check’ function. This function is an internal check to maintain the instruments fundamental parameters calibration, check tube output and detector resolution. This is an important operation to perform as over time the instruments detector can suffer from electronic drift slightly shifting the calibration curve. Running the ‘system check’ can keep the instruments calibration curve in line which will continue to provide the best possible results from the analyser.

  43. System check Select the System Check Icon on the Main Menu to perform a system check. We recommend that you perform a system check once every working day, as part of your normal start up procedure. Click yes to continue the system check. Please make sure at this time there is nothing on the front of the instrument that could affect the reading. Once the system check starts you will hear the shutter close on the instrument. This has sealed the X-rays from leaving the front of the instrument. You will notice that the warning lights have illuminated indicating the X-Ray tube is generating X-Rays. Once the test is finished you will see this screen. Click close. If however there is an error message we advice you to call Niton UK Service on 01256 397860 or email service@nitonuk.co.uk

  44. Analyze mode From the main menu select analyze to go in to the testing mode for the instrument. From this mode you will be able to perform various tasks including taking an analysis and viewing the result.

  45. Tools menu The Tools Menu enables you to perform common data-related tasks such as printing and averaging readings. Select a task from the menu to initiate that task. The options available can vary depending on the selected mode. Once you select tools at the bottom of the screen you will be displayed this screen on the right. The various options are explained next.

  46. Avg Forward Avg back enables you to average different readings together from this analysis forward. Select the Avg Forward button to initiate future sample averaging. Avg Forward will set up an automatic personal averaging protocol to be followed until your analyser is shut down, or this feature is disabled. To begin, select the number of readings you want to average from the virtual numeric keypad. Your analyser will calculate an average reading after that number of tests, and continue this pattern until stopped. For example, if you select 3 on the virtual keypad, the analyser will automatically calculate, average, and store a reading for every three tests you take, storing the individual readings along the way. The range number is selected using a virtual numeric keypad on your analyser similar to the keypad used for login. Select the digits in the range number from the keypad, then select the E button to enter the number. The C button will clear all, and the “<“ button will clear the last digit entered. The average will automatically be displayed.

  47. Avg Back (Alt) Avg back can only be selected by the alternate Tools Menu which is available when viewing readings, and the menu is only accessible through the touch screen interface or NDTr. Avg back enables you to average different readings together from this analysis backward. Select the Avg Back option to initiate backwards sample averaging. Avg Back will take the number of readings you select and average their analytical results. The range is counted from the last reading backward by the number of readings selected. If your last reading was #15, selecting 3 would average readings #13, 14, and 15. The average is calculated, displayed, and stored into memory as the next sequential reading number, in this case, #16.

  48. Live Spectrum The Tools Menu contains a toggle option to display live spectra as sample analysis occurs. To activate and Deactivate the Live Spectrum from the Tools Menu, select the Spectra:On button to turn the Spectrum feed on. Once the spectrum is displayed, selecting Spectra:Off from the Tools Menu will stop the live spectrum display.

  49. Element Range The XL2’s have two filters which can be found in the element range. Here you can decide whether to enable/disable the Light/Low range. You can also set the time for each filter/range to test for. Light Range will need to be at least 30 seconds to measure the light elements accurately. Auto Switch on time only will decide whether or not to change the fitler. If unticked, the library will decide. If ticked, the analyser will change filters after each time frame has expired. Each filter range looks for different elements to excite

  50. Set Pass/Fail You can set up your analyser to sort on a pass/fail basis. Pass/Fail uses the chemistry of a user-generated list of alloys in the library as a basis for comparison. If the sample analysis is entirely within the specifications for one of these alloys, a PASS result is given, otherwise a FAIL result is returned. To initiate Metals Pass/Fail, select the Metals Pass/Fail icon from the Metals Screen. Your analyser will go into the Ready to Test Screen. To set up Metals Pass/Fail, select the Tools Menu and select Set Pass/Fail from the menu. The Pass/Fail Setup Screen will come up.

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