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Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases

Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases

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Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases

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  1. The Psychology of Women Chapter 2Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases

  2. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Terminology Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination Gender Bias Androcentrism Normative-Male Problem

  3. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology 1. Women are evil. 2. Women are terrifying sorceresses. 3. Women are virtuous.

  4. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Gender Biases in Language • Terms Used for Women • non-parallel terms • negative terms • infantilizing terms

  5. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Gender Biases in Language • The Masculine Generic • masculine generic terms are not gender neutral • Gastil's research on mental images • research on career choices • shifting to gender-neutral language

  6. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Gender Biases in the Media • Stereotyped Representations 1. Women are relatively invisible. 2. Women are relatively inaudible. 3. Women are seldom shown working outside the home. 4. Women are shown doing housework. 5. Women and men are represented differently.

  7. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Gender Biases in the Media • Stereotyped Representations (continued) 6. Women’s bodies are used differently from men’s bodies. 7. Women of color are underrepresented, and they are often shown in a particularly biased way. 8. Lower-social-class women are underrepresented, and they are often shown in a particularly biased way.

  8. Biased Representations of Women and Men • Gender Biases in the Media • The Effects of Stereotyped Representations Reflecting and influencing reality • Behaviors and beliefs • Gender-role attitudes • Cognitive performance

  9. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • The Content of Stereotypes • Communion & Agency • Stereotypes About Women and Men From Different Ethnic Groups • gender and ethnicity combine to create a variety of gender stereotypes. • subtypes within gender-ethnicity categories

  10. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • The Content of Stereotypes • Subject Variables That Could Influence Stereotypes • Gender • Ethnicity • Culture • Class • Ableism

  11. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • Implicit Gender Stereotypes • Explicit vs. Implicit Gender Stereotypes • Implicit Association Test (IAT) • stereotype-consistent pairings vs. stereotype-inconsistent pairings

  12. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • Attitudes Toward Women’s Competence Women’s competence is likely to be devalued: • when males are doing the evaluating • when the participants have traditional attitudes • when little information is available about a person’s qualifications • bias may be strongest when a woman is acting in a stereotypically masculine fashion • --Victoria Brescoll’s “Double Bind” work

  13. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • Attitudes Toward Women’s “Pleasantness” Women & men Women & feminists • Ambivalent Sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996, 2001) Hostile sexism Benevolent sexism Ambivalent sexism and gender equality

  14. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • Gender Discrimination in Interpersonal Interactions • Discrimination in North America Laboratory research Real-life gender discrimination • gender-stereotyped remarks • demeaning comments and behaviors • sexual comments and behaviors Other forms of interpersonal gender discrimination

  15. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • Heterosexism • Heterosexism: a belief system that devalues lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals—or any group that is not exclusively heterosexual • Sexual prejudice: a negative attitude toward someone because of her or his sexual orientation

  16. People’s Beliefs About Women and Men • Heterosexism • Examples of Heterosexism • Lack of family acceptance • Verbal abuse • Physical assault • Institutional discrimination • Factors Correlated with Heterosexism • Men more negative than women • More negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians

  17. The Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes • Gender Stereotypes and Cognitive Errors • Social Cognitive Approach: stereotypes are belief systems that guide the way we process information Categorization Errors • Exaggerating the Contrast Between Women and Men • Gender polarization

  18. Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes • Gender Stereotypes and Cognitive Errors • The Normative Male • Making Biased Judgments about Females and Males Judgments fall back on stereotypes Attributions for success • Memory for Personal Characteristics Gender-consistent and gender-inconsistent information Multitasking and strong stereotypes

  19. Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes • Gender Stereotypes and Behavior • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy • Stereotype Threat • --Claude Steele

  20. Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes • Internalizing Gender Stereotypes • Assessing Self-Concepts about Gender Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) Androgynous Problems with androgyny • Internalizing Gender Stereotypes Variety of gender-related characteristics Social categories Social context

  21. Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes • Internalizing Gender Stereotypes • Are Gender Stereotypes Personally Important? • Conclusions About Internalizing Gender Stereotypes • Flexible self-concepts about gender • Views about gender-related characteristics • Confronting your "-ISMS"

  22. The Psychology of Women Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood

  23. Background on Gender Development • People’s Responses to Infant Girls and Boys • Parental Preferences About Sex of Children • North America • Cultural differences • People's Stereotypes About Infant Girls and Boys • Parents' ratings of infant sons and daughters • Strangers' judgments • Greeting cards • Social constructionism

  24. Background on Gender Development • Theories of Gender Development • The Social Learning Approach • Children are rewarded for "gender-appropriate" behavior, and they are punished for "gender-inappropriate" behavior • Children watch and imitate the behavior of other people of their own gender

  25. Background on Gender Development • Theories of Gender Development • The Cognitive Developmental Approach • Children develop powerful gender schemas • Children use gender schemas to evaluate themselves, other people, and other things • Gender schemas • Gender identity

  26. Background on Gender Development • Theories of Gender Development • General Comments about Theories of Gender Development • Children’s behaviors are important • Children’s thoughts are important

  27. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • Parents • Infants vs. Toddlers • Gender-Typed Activities • Chores • Toys • Discouraging “gender-inappropriate” activity • Different messages to girls vs. boys • Messages from male adults

  28. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • Parents (continued) • Conversations About Emotions • Daughters vs. sons • Different emotions discussed • Attitudes About Aggression • Research inconsistent • Imitation • Power dynamics • Attitudes about Independence

  29. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • Parents (continued) • Individual Differences in Parents' Gender Typing • parents vary widely • ethnicity • social class • nontraditional gender beliefs

  30. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • Peers • Peer group • Rejection of Nontraditional Behavior • Gender Segregation • entitlement • Gender Prejudice • preference for own gender • verbal harassment • physical hostility

  31. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • Peers (continued) • Differential Treatment (for Girls and Boys) • attractiveness • prosocial behavior • physical aggression

  32. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • School • Teachers' Behavior • girls as invisible • provide boys with more positive feedback and attention • Students' Characteristics and Teachers' Treatment • ignore girls of color • discourage girls' assertiveness and responsibility • social class

  33. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • School (continued) • Encouraging Change in North American Schools • teacher training in gender and ethnic diversity • de-emphasize gender schemas • pay equal attention to girls • reduce inappropriate stereotypes about gender

  34. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • School (continued) • Gender and Education on the International Level • schooling • literacy rates • employment • birth rates and infant mortality

  35. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • The Media • Television and Videogames • frequency of exposure • gender stereotypes • males more visible • males and females perform different activities • correlation between TV viewing and gender stereotyping • parental controls and involvement

  36. Factors That Shape Gender Typing • The Media (continued) • Books • main characters • activities • stereotyped roles

  37. Children’s Knowledge About Gender • Infants' Basic Information About Gender • Children's Usage of Gender Labels • Children’s Stereotypes About Activities and Occupations • Reactions to “Gender Inconsistent” Activities • Choosing Activities & Toys • Gender Schemas & Occupations

  38. Sex of the Child Ethnicity Social Class Family Views Age of the Child Flexibility Individual Differences Children’s Knowledge About Gender Children's Stereotypes About Personality Factors Related to Children's Gender Stereotypes

  39. Cognitive Abilities • Explaining the Gender Comparisons • Biological Explanations • 1. Genetic explanations • 2. Hormonal explanations • 3. Brain organization explanations Lateralization

  40. Cognitive Abilities • Explaining the Gender Comparisons • Experience as an Explanation • 1. Different experiences with mathematics and spatial activities outside school • 2. Parents and teachers may provide different experiences for males and females • 3. Lack of positive images & role models

  41. Cognitive Abilities • Explaining the Gender Comparisons • Attitudes as an Explanation • 1. Parents’ and teachers’ attitudes and children’s self-confidence • 2. Boys perceive themselves as more competent in math than girls do, even though boys may actually receive lower grades • 3. Students believe that math, computers, and science are associated with males • 4. Stereotype threat

  42. Attitudes About Achievement • Confidence in Your Own Achievement and Ability • Self-Confidence and Evaluation Provided by Others • Women’s self-confidence is influenced by comments from other people; men’s self-confidence is less likely to change based on comments from other people. • Women are more likely than men to use the information from other people’s evaluations in assessing their own performance, even when the evaluations are not accurate

  43. The Psychology of Women Chapter 6 Gender Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristics

  44. Introduction • Theoretical Background • Social Constructionist Approach: We construct or invent our own versions of reality, based on prior experiences, social interactions, and beliefs.

  45. Introduction • Theoretical Background (continued) • Social-Setting Factors Related to Size of Gender Differences in Social and Personality Characteristics 1. Gender differences are usually largest when other people are present. • 2. Gender differences are generally largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are minimized. • 3. Gender differences are usually largest when the behavior requires specific gender-related skills.

  46. Communication Patterns • Verbal Communication • Talkativeness • Interruptions • Status • Language Style • The Content of Language

  47. Communication Patterns • Nonverbal Communication • Personal Space • Body Posture • Gaze • Facial Expression • Smiling • Anger • Decoding Ability • Facial Expressions • Vocal Cues

  48. Communication Patterns • Nonverbal Communication (continued) • Facial Expression • Smiling • Anger • Decoding Ability • Facial Expressions • Vocal Cues

  49. Communication Patterns • Potential Explanations for Gender Differences in Communication • Power and Social Status Explanations • Social Learning Explanations • Conclusions

  50. Characteristics Related to Helping and Caring • Altruism • Hypothetical Scenarios • Heroism • Social Role • Nurturance • Who finds babies interesting and engaging? • Operational Definitions