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The Sino-Soviet Split

The Sino-Soviet Split

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The Sino-Soviet Split

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  1. The Sino-Soviet Split

  2. Rocky from the beginning -Stalin felt Mao’s interpretation of Marxism, using peasants as the basis for the revolution, was not true because it wasn’t lead by workers -Stalin feared Mao as a rival for power & didn’t want the Cold War to spread to Asia -Stalin didn’t give much support to the CCP during the civil war, only warmed up after their victory -Soviets treated Chinese as second-rate, encouraged Mao to send troops into Korea, but forced him to pay for all weapons the soviets supplied

  3. Mao & Khrushchev 1956-64 • “K” gave his “secret speech” denouncing Stalin and his “Cult of Personality” • Mao viewed K’s crushing of Hungarian Uprising as their failure to contain reactionaries • Mao viewed K’s ideas of “Peaceful Coexistence” as against Marxism, since it implied revolution can be achieved without violence • Mao felt détente was an attempt to isolate China • Chinese rep. Deng Xiaoping out-argued Russian rep. over ideology = embarrassment to Russia

  4. Khrushchev visits Beijing 1958 • Was an attempt to ease the growing tension • Mao made his visit uncomfortable, hotel had no air conditioning and infested with flies • Mao had a round of talks at his swimming pool, K had to wear shorts too small and float on a rubber ring since he couldn’t swim • Talks were unproductive Deng states: • Soviets betrayed international communist movement • Soviets saw themselves as only true Marxist-Leninists • Soviets sent spies posing as technical advisors to China

  5. Taiwan 1958 • Mao wanted reunification with Taiwan, and was furious over US support for the Nationalists there • PRC built up troop maneuvers in the region giving impression PRC was preparing for an attack, w/out discussing it with the Soviets • US responds by preparing for war • K accuses Mao of pursuing international revolution at any cost, of being fanatical • Soviets withdraw economic advisors and cancel commercial contracts with PRC

  6. Soviets denounce GLF • Soviets say the GLF was faulty in design and erroneous in practice • Soviet gov. said it was unorthodox and reveled in Mao’s failure, Mao wanted to strike back • 1961 Soviets withdrew aid to Albania for Stalinist doctrines and backwards ways • Mao viewed it as an attack on China as well and offered to replace Soviet money, this was the final severance of diplomatic relationships • K calls Mao the “Asian Hitler” Mao calls K a “Redundant old boot”

  7. Sino-Indian war 1962 • China had issues with the border that was imposed by the British, Mao wanted to renegotiate, yet India saw no reason to • October 1962 war breaks out between PLA and Indian military. India allowed US to fly U-2 planes over the area and we photograph China’s 1st A-Bomb test • Soviets were officially neutral, yet they gave India MIG fighters…Mao is angry the soviets had aided the enemy

  8. Cuban Missile Crisis • Mao was openly critical of how Khrushchev handled the crisis • Mao attacked him for the placement of the DETECTABLE missiles, his backing down to the Americans and the negative impact it will have on the struggle against US imperialism • He called Khrushchev a coward

  9. Cultural Revolution • Khrushchev left office in 1964, Soviet leadership still isolates PRC • Soviets denounce Cultural Revolution as total fanaticism and criticized Mao for creating anarchy • Soviets attacked PRC for: • Trading with APARTHEID South African regime • Getting nuclear help from WEST Germany • Sending supplies to US forces in Vietnam

  10. Nuclear Weapons Issue • 1957 appeared USSR gained superiority of USA with launching of Sputnik • Mao felt USSR should use to push the US to war, Khrushchev saw it as a way to push “Peaceful Coexistence” • Test-Ban treaty of 1963 stopped atmospheric testing of atomic weapons. Mao irritated at Soviets continued compliance with imperialist powers • Khrushchev accuses Mao of wanting to see USA & USSR to destroy each other leaving PRC as top dog

  11. Argument over Nuclear Technology: • CHINA: If you’re our friend, help us develop our own program… • SOVIETS: since we are your friend, you don’t need your own program we’ll look after you • China ends up developing their own nuclear weapons in 1964, showing they didn’t need the Soviets and were now an international power.