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Formation of canonical Hebrew Bible in 1st-2nd c. AD PowerPoint Presentation
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Formation of canonical Hebrew Bible in 1st-2nd c. AD

Formation of canonical Hebrew Bible in 1st-2nd c. AD

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Formation of canonical Hebrew Bible in 1st-2nd c. AD

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  1. Formation of canonical Hebrew Bible in 1st-2nd c. AD

  2. Structure of the Hebrew Bible Torah (Law, a.k.a. Pentateuch, from Gk. he pentateuchos biblos [book of five scrolls]) Nevi’im/Nebi’im (Prophets) Ketuvim/Ketubim (Writings)

  3. Structure of the Hebrew Bible Torah: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Nevi’im: Joshua, Judges, Samuel (1+2), Kings (1+2), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, 12 Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) Ketuvim: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Scrolls (Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther), Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles (1+2)

  4. Jews in exile in Babylon from 587-39 BC. Babylonians overthrown by Persians in 539 BC. Jews restored to Judea First efforts to collect Jewish scriptures in period after 539 BC, as now Jews in Judea, Babylon and Egypt (since 7th c.)

  5. The Books of the Nevi’im (Prophets) Covering the period leading up to, during and after the Babylonian exile, but gradually giving way to interpretation of written word practiced by rabbis and other scholars Prophecy regarded as ending with Ezra (c. 458 BC) Books of Prophets prob. compiled by 180 BC, certainly by 132 BC

  6. The Books of the Ketuvim (Writings) Mid 3rd c. BC Jewish community of Alexandria produces Septuagint (Greek version of Hebrew Bible) Debate over authority of various Writings in 1st or 2nd c. AD in wake of Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, in face of diaspora, Christianity

  7. Classical Rabbinic Period (1st-11th c. AD) After 70 AD, rabbis become primary religious authorities in community Major works of period: Topical works: Mishnah, Talmud “With-Text” Commentaries: Midrash

  8. Mishnah Compilation of records of oral discussions of various laws mishnah = “oral instruction” Believed to have been compiled into final form by R. Judah ha-Nasi (“the Patriarch”) c. 200 AD

  9. Talmud Talmud Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud, 370 AD) Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud, 6th c. AD) Mishnah Gemara “learning”

  10. Midrash (commentaries) Best-known is Midrash Rabbah (“Great Commentary,” covering Torah and Five Scrolls)

  11. halakhah - legal commentary aggadah - non-legal commentary: theology, lore, legends, sayings, prayer and praise

  12. Abraham, progenitor of chosen people Promised Land/Canaan Moses Leading Israelites to Holy Land

  13. Saul (r. c. 1020-1000 BC) David (r. 1000-965 or 961 BC) Solomon (r. 965 or 961-931 BC) Israel and Judah 722 BC Conquest of Israel by Assyrians 587 BC Conquest of Judah by Babylonians, destruction of First Temple

  14. 539 BC Restoration of Jews to Holy Land by Persians eschatology angelology 331 BC Alexander the Great conquers Holy Land Philo of Alexandria (20 BC-50 AD) Pharisees

  15. 63 BC Romans conquer Holy Land 70 AD Romans destroy Jerusalem and Second Temple, leading to diaspora

  16. Ashkenazi Jews in France, Germany, Italy Sephardi Jews in Spain and Middle East Balancing act between authorities and autonomy Variable treatment and self-separation

  17. 18th c. Appearance of Hasidism and opponents Opening up of European society to Jews Late 19th c. Development of Zionism 1939-45 World War II, death of six million Jews in Holocaust 1948 Foundation of state of Israel 1967 Six-Day War in Middle East