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Bioinorganic chemistry

Bioinorganic chemistry

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Bioinorganic chemistry

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  1. Bioinorganic chemistry Introduction

  2. biochemistry (micro-) biology Inorganic chemistry Bioinorganic chemistry physics physiology pharmacology toxicology Bioinorganic chemistry as a highly interdisciplinary research field

  3. Bioinorganic Chemistry • biological chemistry of the elements- inorganic chemistry of life Living organisms require:1.Temperature from 0°C to about 40 °C2. Pressure of the order of 1 atm = 101 kPa3. Salinity up to about 4%4. pH in the range 4 to 95. Redox potential -0.4 to + 0.8 V at pH = 76. Water activity 0.7 to 1.0 mole fraction Essential feature of life:Continuous adaptation to changing environmental conditions

  4. DNA/RNA plan (genetics) Proteins Membranes Saccharides (machinery) Living system Electrones Ions Energy (bio-energetics) compartments Interrelationship between the three interlocking features of a biological system

  5. DNA/RNA (genetikai) Proteinek Membránok Szénhidrátok (felépítés) Élő szervezetek Elektronok Ionok Energia (bio-energetikai) csoportok Biológiai rendszerek általános felépítése

  6. Evolution of life essential elements Earth solidified ~ 4 billion years ago 81 stabile elements Elements of the living organism: • Elements in large scale: 11 elements H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca • Elements in small scale: 7 elements Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, I, Mo • Elements of a few species: 7 elements B, F, Si, V, Cr, Se, Sn

  7. Life essential macro elementsLife essential trace elements H O C N P S Fe Cu Zn Mn Mo Cl K Na Ca Mg Co Cr Se Ni F V Non-essential elements Be As Si B Li Ag Sn Rb Cs Sr Ba Al Y Ga In Tl Ge Pb Sb Bi Te Au Br Sc Ti Zr Hf Nb Ta W Rc Cd Hg

  8. Periodic Table bulk eliments for some species trace eliments

  9. Mn Fe Cd Cu Zn Pb Ca Se Hg Cr Interaction of some elements(Chowdhuri, Chandra)

  10. Concentration and physiological effect

  11. Chemical evolution of life: ~ 1.5 billion years ago Formation of biologically important molecules Biomonomers Biopolymers ~103 ~1010 e.g.: HCN Nitriles Aminonitriles Amino acids Polypeptides

  12. Miller-Urey Experiment (Spontaneous Generation)

  13. Raw ingredients assumed to have been present in atmosphere and hydrosphere of Early Earth: water carbon dioxide carbon monoxide N-gases S-gases methane ? yields: amino acids, sugars, nucleic acid bases, lipids Raw Ingredients Monomers Polymers Cell Membrane Reproduction Living Cell

  14. Origin of Life • Life was formed in fluid medium • Adaptation to a reducing atmosphere • Adaptation to an oxidizing atmosphere ad. a) Cell-like structures: - Hydrophobic interactions (formation of coacervate droplets, micelle) - Protenoid microsphere - Primitive gene ad. b) CO2, N2, CH4, H2O, CO, H2S, HCN, NH3 ad. c) Product of photosynthesis

  15. Ion concentrations in sea water and extracellular blood plasma

  16. Biopolymers The chemistry of living organisms is called biochemistry Biochemical molecules tend to be very large and difficult to synthesize Living organisms are highly ordered. Therefore, living organism have very low entropy Most biologically important molecules are polymers, called biopolymers Biopolymers fall into three classes:proteins polysaccharides (carbohydrates), and nucleic acids