TITLE OF THE PAPER:Research Methodology By PROF.CMA.CS. V.N. PARTHIBAN FICWA, ACS, FIII, ML, LLM, ADIM, MFM, MHRM, MIM, MBA,MPHIL,
INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY By PROF CMA CS V.N.PARTHIBAN, FICWA, ACS,FIII,MBA,LLM,ASM,ADIM,MPHIL, ETC.,
RESEARCH: MEANS For a common human being ‘research’ means a detailed study of a subject especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a new findings. ‘Research is a careful inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something’. (Clifford Woody)
Objectives of Research To find out truth that is hidden. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to archive new insists into the study. To understand/investigates the characteristics of a particular Individual/groups situation(s). To formulate and test hypothesis that narrates casual relationships between variables. To gate decision making through problem solving.
What is Good/Scientific Research? Purpose clearly defined Research process detailed Research design thoroughly planned Limitations frankly revealed High ethical standards applied Adequate analysis for decision-maker’s needs Findings presented unambiguously Conclusions justified Researcher’s experience reflected
Purpose of Research To increase knowledge within a discipline or an area of study. To increase knowledge as a consumer of research and to understand research within a discipline or area of study.
Types of Research Types of Research 1. Exploratory Research Survey of Literature Experience Survey Study of Case 2. Conclusive Research Descriptive Research Experimental Research 3
. Modelling Research Symbolic Model Mathematical Model 4. Applied Research 5. Fundamental Research
Types of data Generally there are two types of data are available. They are Secondary data and Primary data
Secondary data The secondary data is also known as published data. Data which are not originally collected but rather obtained from published sources and statistically processed are known as secondary data. For example: Data published by Reserve Bank of India, Ministry of Economic affairs, Ministry of Agriculture etc along with international bodies such as World Bank, Asian Development Bank, International LabourOrganisation, UNICEF, etc.
Merits of secondary data: Collection charge is less costly as data is already available. It is faster to collect and process as compared to primary data. It provides valuable insists and contextual familiarity with the subject matter. It provides a base on which further information can be collected to update the data and finally use the data for the purpose of research.
Demerits of secondary data: Locating appropriate source and finally getting access to the data could be time consuming. The data available might be too vast and a lot of time may be spend going through it. It is originally collected for some purposes which is specific and not known to the present researcher.
Primary Data: • These data are collected first time as original data. These data are called raw data. • For example, data obtained in a population census by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs is primary data.
Merits of primary data: • Primary data is more accurate and gives detailed information according to the requirement • The explanation of terms, definition, and concepts are incorporated in primary data • Methods of collection, its limitations and other allied aspects are highlighted • It is more reliable and less prone to errors
Demerits of primary data: • It is expensive to collect primary data. • It is time consuming method of data collection • It requires experts/trained personnel to collect the primary data. Otherwise it may lead to wrong observations/unreliable data collection.
Questionnaire Method • A questionnaire is a tool or device for securing answers to the set of questions by the respondents who fills in the form of questionnaire himself. • It is systematic compilation of questions that are submitted to a sample of population from which information is desired. • The questions in a questionnaire are generally arranged in a sequence depending on the nature of study and are capable of reply
Procedure of Formulating a Questionnaire • At most care should be taken to the researcher before formulating a questionnaire. • This is because a questionnaire is formulated before having any adequate information about the respondents’ characteristics. • Again this is the only method that allows coverage of wider samples in a study.
Fixing the nature of information required • Evaluating the nature/type of questionnaire to use • Deciding on the contents/matters that will be included as questions • Narrating on the type of the questions to be used • Deciding on the wording of the questions • Arranging the questions as per sequence • Finalizing the questions after revisions, if any.
Deciding on type of questionnaire to use • Among many, following four types of questionnaires are generally used by the researchers’ world over for their research. They are: • Structured direct questionnaire • Structured indirect questionnaire • Unstructured direct questionnaire • Unstructured indirect questionnaire
Structured Direct Questionnaire: • Here the questions are direct. • This type of questionnaire is generally used when some personality characteristic is attached. Here the objective of study at first made clear to the respondent. • For instance: If the respondent is asked whether he/she bought brand M on his/her last shopping trip and here the research analyst is interested only in whether the purchase was made. Here the purpose of study is to know ‘How old were you when you first purchased Brand-M’? Rather than asking ‘Have you ever purchased Brand-M’.
Unstructured Direct Questionnaire • Here the researcher frames general questions based on the purpose of research. Here the researcher has the freedom of arranging the questions in any order in the questionnaire. • Even the wordings of the questions are changed to suit it with the vocabulary used by the respondents. Depending upon the skill and expertise the researcher handles the situation and collects the information that is desired.
Unstructured Indirect Questionnaire • In this case no formal method is followed to get the answers. • The patterns of the questions are also not direct. • In this case of questionnaire collection complete freedom is allowed to the researcher to put any of the questions to any order.
Types of Questions • The classifier or background questions • Open-end questions • Multiple Choice questions (close ended questions) and • Dichotomous questions
1. The Classifier or Background Questions • These types of questions are used to obtain demographic characteristics of the respondents who are sampled for the study, such as age, sex, address, mail address and so forth. 2. Open-end Questions: • Here the researcher includes a question in the questionnaire and asks the opinion of the respondents without giving any clue or alternatives of the answer.
3. Multiple Choice Questions These type of questions are generally asked now-a-days in most of the research works. Basically these questions are used to determine feelings or opinions on certain issues by allowing the respondents to choose an answer from a list that is provided. 4. Dichotomous Questions: These are extreme form of multiple questions. Here the idea of the researcher is to offer ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
Schedule Method • The name schedule is usually applied to a performa containing a set of questions which are asked and filled by an interviewer in a face to face situation with a respondent.
Types of Schedules • Observation Schedule: Those schedules that are used in observation research is called as observation schedule. In these schedules observer records the activities and responses of a worker or a group under specific conditions. • Rating Schedules:In the field of business guidance, psychological research, and social research, the rating schedules are used to assess the attributes, opinions, preferences and other qualitative elements.
Types of Schedules • Document Schedule: The schedules of this type are used to obtain data regarding written evidence and case histories from autobiography, diary, case histories of the companies or Government records, etc. • Interview Schedule: In an interview schedule an interviewer presents the questions of the schedule to interviewee and records their responses.
Nominal Scale: • Sometimes, however, the assignment of numbers to concepts for studying in research is rather crude. • A Nominal measurement scale is used for variables in which each participant or observation in the study must be placed into one mutually exclusive and exhaustive category.
OrdinalScale: • An ordinal scale is next important measurement type in the list of measurement. • The simplest ordinal scale is a ranking. • An ordinal scale only interprets gross order and not the relative positional distances. • Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered in the sense that higher numbers represent higher values.
Interval Scale: • The next scale of measurement is the interval scale which provides the researchers more quantitative information. • When a variable is measured on an interval scale, the distance between numbers or units on the scale is equal over all levels of the scale. • One unit on the scale represents the same magnitude on the trait or characteristic being measured across the whole range of the scale.
Likert’s Scale • The most common and easily used intensity (or scaled) question involves the use of the Likert-type answer scale. • The summated rating scale is associated with the name of RensisLikert (1932). • It allows the respondent to choose one of the several (usually five) degrees of feeling about a statement from strong approval to strong disapproval.
RatioScale: • A ratio scale is the top level of measurement and is often available in social and behavioural research studies. • The greatest draw back of the interval scale is that, there is no absolute zero point on it.
The classification of variables according to their measurement scales is useful to assist the researchers in choosing an analytic procedure.