“How confident do you feel about teaching vocabulary?” • Rate yourself using a scale of 1 to 9 on your confidence level for teaching vocabulary. • Place your blank post-it note on the Confidence Scale on the wall, 1 being the lowest and 9 the highest. Confidence Scale for Teachers 1 ----------------------- 5------------------------- 9
Making Words “Stick!”RA Cohort 08 -09October 30, 2008 Kathy Emeigh Kemeigh@ciu20.org 610-515-6546 Assistant Director of Curriculum and Instruction Colonial Intermediate Unit 20
Anticipation Guide(before instruction) • Teaching specific terms in a specific way is probably the strongest action a teacher can take to ensure that students will understand content. • Vocabulary instruction activates students’ prior knowledge. • All students are ESL or ELL. • The chief cause of the achievement gap is a language gap. • Effective vocabulary instruction includes the dictionary definition and memorization.
Are the “words” we teach sticking? A wonderful phonics lesson just took place. In the last seconds of the activity, students in an urban 1rst grade classroom used the letter cards on their desks to sound out and spell the word “hog.” When they finished, the teacher queried, almost as an afterthought, “would you like to have a hog for a pet?” Connie Juel and Rebecca Deffes, March, 2004
“No,” one student responded adamantly. “Why not?” asked the teacher. “Cause it might fly out the window!” the student replied. Juel and Deffes, 2004
“Wait a second, what is a hog?” the teacher asked as she began to realize that there was a problem. Many students looked uncertain. One little boy gestured with his hands as he explained, “It’s like a tree branch.” Although these first graders were able to proficiently use letter cards to spell the word “hog,” many of them were unsure of the word’s meaning. “Hog” meant “hawk” to some and “log” to others; some students couldn’t connect the word to any meaning at all. Juel and Deffes, 2004
Why are the students having trouble reading/comprehending? and What can teachers do about it? Is the content we present “sticking?”
One thought as to “why?”… Welcome ToThe Language Of Our Kids… Whatever “JK” Ya-right Wassup? Dawg My bad Straight up What it is That rocks
In Terms of Academic English… ALL Students Are ESL!! Academic English as a “foreign language” Vocabulary - nature & density Syntax Grammar “AESL” It is NOT a “natural” language - it must be taught!
Another reason “why” some of our students are struggling with vocabulary comprehension…. “It is now well accepted that the chief cause of the achievement gap between socioeconomic groups is a language gap.” (Ed Hirsch, 2001)
Word PovertyLouisa Cook Moats, 2001 Upon matriculation into 1rst grade: • “Linguistically advantaged” students - 20,000 known words • “Linguistically disadvantaged” students – 5,000 known words • These students also suffer from partial knowledge of word meanings, confusion over similar-sounding words, and limited knowledge of how and when to use words.
Profound differences in vocabulary knowledge: • High school seniors near the top of their class knew about four times as many words as their lower-performing classmates. • High-knowledge third graders had vocabularies about equal to lowest-performing 12th graders. A Reflective Moment……… (Beimiller, 1999, 2004; Chall et al.,1990; Hart & Risley, 1995, 1999)
What can teachers do to solve this problem? • Teachers must make effective vocabulary instruction a high priority in the educational system. • According to research, teachers must make vocabulary instruction robust, vigorous, strong and powerful to be effective.
REMEMBER THIS!!! “Teaching vocabulary is synonymous with teaching background knowledge.” Marzano (2004)
Vocabulary Development and Background Knowledge What students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to the content. Marzano, 2004
Word Splash! ampere power charge watt ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS voltage ohm resistance volt current coulomb
Which vocabulary words to pick? • Words that are important for understanding the text. • Words that are critically important for the content area. • Words that students will encounter often, functionally important words (Stahl, 1986) • High priority words (Beck, 2002) See “Adopt a Word” and Marzano’s “Building Academic Vocabulary”
What Does it Mean to “Teach Vocabulary”? Is having students look words up in the dictionary followed by crafting sentences showing appropriate usage “teaching vocabulary”? YES - NO - WHY?
Past Practice:Dictionary “Rote memorization of words and definitions is the least effective instructional method resulting in little long-term effect.” (Kameenui, Dixon, Carine 1987)
Tools to Develop Word Learning through “student friendly” descriptions • Use of dictionaries & other reference aids. • Co-Build Student Dictionary (ISBN-0-00-712034-6) • Longman Publishers www.longman.com • Heinle & Heinle Publishers http://nhd.heinle.com/
Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Strategies • Step 1 - Student-friendly descriptions • Step 2 – Restate in own words • Step 3 - Nonlinguistic representations • Step 4 - Multiple exposures • Step 5 - Students should discuss terms • Step 6 – Periodically students are involved in games Marzano (2004) (See handout for further explanation)
Make A Picture:Non-linguistic Representation • Construct a visual image that connects the target word with the meaning. • One connection could be auditory. “Carlin” means old woman. The word part “car” could generate a picture of an old woman driving a car. Or, the student could just draw a picture of an older woman. Use of nonlinguistic representations increases comprehension by 50%!
“To understand the word at deeper levels, students require repeated and varied exposure to words, during which they revise their initial understandings.” (Marzano, 2004) Remember: As you “evaluate” the following vocabulary activities and strategies, use the 6 steps to help you decide if these are “strong” and effective or not.
Levels Of Word Knowledge • No Clue • Have Heard/Seen It • Think I Know It • Know It Well/Can Use It in a Sentence
Word Knowledge Rating • HIGH KNOWLEDGELOW KNOWLEDGE • 4 = I could teach it to the class. 2 = I recognize it but need a review. • 3 = I am pretty sure what it means. 1 = I have no clue what it means Term Before Instruction After Instruction specious, adj. surreptitious, adj. Look in your packet for a few more templates! grapnel, n. impetuous, adj. analysis, n.
Vocabulary Notebook Pages Word: My knowledge: 1 2 3 4 Description: Picture: Synonym: Antonym: Sentence:
An Overview of the LINCS Strategy Step 1: List the parts Step 2: Identify a Reminding Word Step 3: Note a LINCing Story Step 4: Create a LINCing Picture Step 5: Self-test
Creating LINCS Study Cards 1. Take an index card and divide both sides in half by drawing lines across the middle of both sides.
Creating LINCS Study Cards (cont.) 2. Write the word to be learned on the top half of one side. Then circle it. fief
Creating LINCS Study Cards (cont.) 3. Write the parts of the definition you need to remember on the top of the other side. Land given by king for fighting in army fief
Creating LINCS Study Cards (cont.) 4. Write the Reminding Word on the bottom half of the first side. Land given by king for fighting in army fief chief
Creating LINCS Study Cards (cont.) 5. Write the LINCing Story on the bottom half of the second side. Land given by king for fighting in army fief Chief of his land chief
Creating LINCS Study Cards (cont.) 6. Draw the LINCing Picture on the bottom half of the second side. Land given by king for fighting in army fief Chief of his land chief
LINCS Results • Vocabulary test scores on chapter tests • Without LINCS = 54% • With LINCS = 89% There are more pages in your packet that clarify how to choose “reminding” words, stories, and pictures!
Wordstorming 1.Students write down all words they can think of related to a given concept. 2.When list-making slows, increase words to the list by asking more guided questions.
Wordstormingcontinued: 3. Ask students to group and categorize their words. One column might be left for miscellaneous. 4. Introduce any words that you think should be included. Students must decide what category in which to place the added word.
Using Examples & Non-examples Example Vocabulary Word Synonym Antonym Non-Example
Using Examples & Non-examples sky under, below over above dirt, ground
Word Parts • Enhances student understanding of the term • Teach those prefixes occurring most frequently: un-, re-, in-, dis- • Teach suffixes that occur most frequently –s,/es, -ed, -ing.
Prefixes “no” or “not” anti in mis un TIME post pre NUMBERS bi multi tri Suffixes Able to be able ible Relating to al ance One who er ite or ence Full of ful y More Direct Teaching of Words, Word-Learning
Word Walls • Repetition reinforces previously learned material • Encourages students to use the vocabulary words in writing, class discussion, and builds discipline specific language. • Recommend alphabetic or thematic LOOK!! Word Wall Wonders
Word Pair Analysis Word Pair Same Opposite Go Together No Relation nomad/wanderer nomad/settler desert/city desert/arid biome/ environment desert/nomad
Generate Metaphors Generate Analogies (bridge map) Revise initial descriptions / nonlinguistic representations Games to Play e.g. Win, Lose or Draw, Jeopardy, Balderdash, Pictionary More Activities to Deepen Word Knowledge