Fragments and Run-ons There will be a link to this PP on my website so you can use it to study. The grammar quiz will be on Wednesday even if Tuesday is a snow day. Study handouts and A Pocket Style Manual.
Terms to Know: Subject Subject: who or what the sentence is about (who or what is doing the action) • Learning grammar is fun. • She teaches. • Those who write well know the rules. • The big hairy dog with the spots on its nose is annoying me.
Terms to Know: Predicate Predicate (verb): A verb and any objects, complements, and modifiers that go with it. • I will go to the store on Saturday. • The cat with the orange tail purrs loudly. • I am hungry. • She is beautiful.
Terms to Know: Clauses • Clause: word group with a subject and verb, plus any objects, complements, or modifiers. • Independent Clause: a word group containing a subject and verb that can or does stand alone as a sentence.I left my books in the rain.They are wet. • Subordinate (dependent) Clause: A word group containing a subject and verb that cannot stand alone as a sentence.Since I missed the train.While it was snowing.
Terms to Know: Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunction: Used to join elements of equal grammatical rank. (fanboys = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) • Subordinating conjunction: A word that introduces a subordinate clause and indicates the relation of the clause to the rest of the sentence. (after, although, because, if, until, when, though, since, etc.) • Relative pronouns: one of the following words, when used to introduce and adjective clause, which is a type of subordinate clause. (who, whom, whose, which, that)
Finding Fragments A fragment will be missing a subject, the verb, or express an incomplete thought. Subject missing: Are skiing smoothly down the mountain. Should be planted around the house in rows. Verb missing: The two men. All the animals in the house. Incomplete thought: (often takes these forms) Subordinate Clause: Although the two men are skiing smoothly down the mountain. When I am grown up. Verbal phrase: Running down the hall. To improve her score on the SAT. Convinced that he could win the election.
How to Fix a Fragment Example: Many adults suffer silently from agoraphobia. A fear of the outside world. • Pull it into an existing sentence:Many adults suffer silently from agoraphobia, a fear of the outside world. • Turn it into a sentence: Many adults suffer silently from agoraphobia. They have a fear of the outside world.
Recognizing Run-ons A fused sentence has no punctuation or coordinating conjunctions between independent clauses. The room was cold it was damp. A comma splice is where two or more independent clauses are joined with a comma and no coordinating conjunction. At least a lesson had been learned, next time he would prepare for any emergency.
How to Repair a Run-on The room was cold it was damp. • Add a comma and coordinating conjunction:The room was cold, and it was damp. • Use a semicolon:The room was cold; it was damp. • Make the clauses into separate sentences:The room was cold. It was damp. • Restructure the sentence: The room was cold and damp. Note: when repairing a run-on, choose the method that works best for that sentence. Of the above choices, which one sounds best?