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Organizational Behavior. Organizational Behavior (OB) The study of actions that affect performance in the workplace. The goal of OB is to explain and predict actions and how they will affect performance. OB focuses on three levels: individual, group, and organizational. Win-win Situation
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Organizational Behavior • Organizational Behavior (OB) • The study of actions that affect performance in the workplace. • The goal of OB is to explain and predict actions and how they will affect performance. • OB focuses on three levels: individual, group, and organizational. • Win-win Situation • A situation in which both parties get what they want.
Personality • Personality • A combination of traits that classifies individuals. • Developed based on genetics and environmental factors. • Affects the long-term performance of individuals.
Single Traits of Personality • Locus of control • External: outside forces are in control. • Internal: individual is in control. • Optimism versus Pessimism • Risk Propensity • From risk taking to risk avoidance. • Machiavellianism • The degree to which people believe that ends justify the means and use power to get what they want.
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Perception • Perception • The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting environmental information. • Based on internal factors (e.g., personality) and external factors (e.g., accuracy of information). • Self-esteem describes how individuals perceive themselves.
The Attribution Process • Attribution • The process of determining the reason for an individual’s behavior. • Situational: out of the control of the individual. • Intentional: individual is consciously behaving. Model 9–1
Bias in Perception • Selectivity • Screening information in favor of the desired outcome. • Frame of Reference • Seeing things from your point of view rather than another’s. • Stereotypes • The process of generalizing the behavior of a group to one individual. • Expectations • Perceiving what is expected to be perceived.
Attitudes • Attitudes • Persistent positive or negative evaluations of people, things, and situations. • Attitude Formation • Attitudes are based on perceptions. • Attitudes and Behavior • Attitudes reflect feelings and affect behavior. • Pygmalion Effect • Managers’ attitudes and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determine employee performance.
Attitudes • Attitudes and Job Satisfaction • Job satisfaction is a person’s attitude toward his or her job. • Job Satisfaction and Performance • Affects absenteeism and turnover. • Doesn’t guarantee performance. • Affects off-the-job behaviors. • Determinants of Job Satisfaction • Personality, the work itself, compensation, growth and upward mobility, coworkers, management • Parkinson’s Law • Peter Principle
Power • Power • The ability to influence others’ behavior. • Position power • Derived from top management and is delegated down the chain of command. • Personal power • Derived from the follower based on the individual’s behavior.
Sources and Bases of Power • Coercive Power • Involves threats and/or punishment to influence compliance. • Connection Power • Based on the user’s relationship with influential people. • Reward Power • Based on the user’s ability to influence others with something of value to them.
Sources and Bases of Power • Legitimate Power • Based on the user’s position power given by the organization. • Referent Power • Based on the user’s personal power relationship with others. • Information Power • Based on data desired by others. • Expert Power • Based on the user’s skills and knowledge.
Sources and Bases of Power Exhibit 9–1
Organizational Politics • Politics • The process of gaining and using power. • Political Behavior • Networking • The process of developing relationships for the purpose of socializing and politicking. • Reciprocity • Involves creating obligations and developing alliances and using them to accomplish objectives. • Coalition • A network of alliances that will help a manager achieve an objective.
Political Behaviors and Guidelines for Developing Political Skills Exhibit 9–2
Managing Conflict • Conflict • Exists whenever people are in disagreement and opposition. • Functional Conflict • Exists when disagreement and opposition support the achievement of organizational goals. • Dysfunctional Conflict • Exists when conflict prevents the achievement of organizational goals. • Complacency and confrontation are both dysfunctional forms of conflict.
Conflict Management Styles Exhibit 9–3
The Negotiation Process Model 9–2
The Collaborating Conflict Style Model 9–3a
The Collaborating Conflict Style (cont’d) Model 9–3b
The Collaborating Conflict Style (cont’d) Model 9–3c
The Stress Tug-of-War Exhibit 9–5