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Reconstruction

Reconstruction

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Reconstruction

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  1. Reconstruction Chapter 12

  2. Presidential Reconstruction • Reconstruction • Post Civil War • 1865 – 1877 • Repair damage to the South

  3. The Wars Aftermath • Physical Toll • 2/3rds South’s shipping was destroyed • 9000 miles of RR destroyed • 1/3 of livestock dead • Value of Southern Farm Land down 70% • Human Toll • North lost 364,000 • South lost 260,000 • 1 in 3 permanently wounded

  4. Black Southerners • 4 million free people • Homeless, Jobless, Hungry • Could keep working on plantations

  5. Plantation Owners • Lost $3 billion in labor • Gov. took $100 million in plantation land • Confederate money was worthless • Had to sell property to cover debt

  6. Poor White Southerners • Couldn’t find jobs • Families left to go west

  7. Punishment or Pardon? • What should be done to South? • Unsure who was in charge

  8. Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan • 10% Plan • Pardon to any Confederate who swear oath to Union • Denied pardon to Confederate military & gov officials • 10% of voters swear allegiance to start new constitution • Congress threatened by Pres making law • Radical Republicans – main restructure goal= equality • Lincoln’s plan too lenient • July 1864 – Wade-Davis Act • Lincoln pocket veto

  9. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan • Presidential Reconstruction Plan • Pardon with oath • States could hold new constitutional convention • Had to void secession, abolish slavery, repudiate Confederate debt • Hold elections and rejoin Union • Pardoned 13,000 Southerners

  10. The Taste of Freedom • Freedom of Movement • Started looking for family • Freedom to Own Land • Sherman’s 40 acres and a mule • Stayed and worked to gain money • Freedom to Worship • Started churches • Became center of all-Black towns • Freedom to Learn • 1860 – 90% AA illiterate • 1865 – 1870 = 30 AA colleges founded

  11. The Freedmen’s Bureau • Established in March 1865 by Congress • Help newly freed slaves • Gave clothes, medicine and food • Set up schools • Dismantled in 1869

  12. Congressional Reconstruction • Black Codes • Curfews – sunset • Vagrancy Laws – not working= fine, whip, sold for 1 yr. • Labor contracts – 1 yr of work for pay in December • Land Restrictions – only live in rural areas

  13. 14th Amendment • South defiance angered Congress • 1866 Civil Rights Act outlawed black codes • All people are free and equal

  14. Radical Reconstruction • The North Grows Impatient • Violence against AA’s increased • Johnson still opposed civil rights for AAs

  15. Reconstruction Act of 1867 • Put South on 5 unit martial law • Must have new elections and Constitution • All men, including AAs could vote • Ex-Confeds couldn’t vote • Guarantee equal rights for all • Ratify 14th amendment

  16. Congress and the President • Johnson vs. Sumner and Stevens • Both powerful and abolitionists • Fight between men and branches of government

  17. A Power Struggle • 1868 Johnson tries to fire Secretary of War Stanton • Didn’t want Stanton to preside over South • Senate needed to approve the firing

  18. Johnson is Impeached • Congress finds the firing unconstitutional • Feb 24, 1868 – Impeach 126 to 47 • Impeach – charge with wrong doing • May 16, 1868 vote to remove from office • Stayed in with by one vote

  19. Grant is Elected • 1868 – Republicans choose Ulysses S. Grant • Beat Democrat Horatio Seymour

  20. The 15th Amendment • Freedmen wanted right to vote, hold office, serve on juries, and testify in court • 15th ratified in March 1870 • Texas vs. White, upheld Reconstruction

  21. The First Votes • Military had been registering freedmen • 735,000 voted in 1867 and 1868 • 250 AA delegates at Constitutional Conventions

  22. Electing Black Leaders • Most AAs voted Republican • 600 AAs elected to office • Louisiana got P.B.S. Pinchback as governor

  23. Integrating the Capitol • Eight AAs in Congress by 1875 • Climate began to shift against AAs

  24. The Republican South • Carpetbaggers • Northern Republicans who moved to the South • Luggage made of carpet scraps • Went to profit off post-war problems

  25. Scalawags • White Southern Republicans • Usually very poor and uneducated • Seen as traitors

  26. Birth of the New South-Changes in Farming • Wanted: Workers • Planters held land & worked • Whites didn’t like doing “slave labor” • Fields 50 cents, RR $2 • Planters had land but no labor • Freedmen had labor but no land

  27. Sharecropping • Farmed part of plantation for owner • Family got 1/3rd or ½ crop at harvest • Conditions similar to slavery • Charged for supplies at inflated prices • Trapped on plantation for debt to owner

  28. Tenant Farming • Didn’t own land but rented, very poor • Choose crops to grow

  29. Effects of the South • Changes in the Labor Force • Before 1860, 90% AA labor • By 1875, only 40% • Emphasis on Cash Crops • Grew cotton, tobacco, sugar cane • Cash crops • Had to import food

  30. Cycle of Debt • Years profit = Years debt • Never could escape • Only 1 in 20 black families had land in 1870 • Rise of Merchants • Tenant farming created new wealthy • 8000 stores that sold on credit • Landlords had own stores

  31. Cities and Industry • The Growth of Cities • South jealous of industrialized North • ATL rebuilt & became center of South • Railroads became center of Reconstruction • Limits of Industrial Growth • Did not turn South in to “new” North • Only early stages of manufacturing existed • Most profits came from cotton mills

  32. Funding Reconstruction • Infrastructure – Public property & services that a society uses • Biggest business opportunities • Roads, canals, bridges, railroads • South created public schools in 1872 • Heavy taxes • Added $130 million to Southern debt

  33. Corruption • Many fraudulent loans and grants • Lost money that could have helped the South

  34. The KKK • 6 confederate soldiers in Tennessee • Kuklos- Greek for circle • Wore robes pretending to be confederate ghosts • Seek revenge • 1867- Nashville Convention • 1st Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford Forrest • Civil War general ordered 300 blacks killed. • 1868- ½ New Orleans adult white males.

  35. The Klan • Plan to eliminate Republicans and blacks. • Worked at night • Burned crosses and killed • Anyone who disagreed was a target

  36. The Federal Response • Enforcement Act of 1870 • Banned any prevention of terror • States banned KKK all together • 1000s of Klansmen tried and jailed

  37. A Dying Issue • Corruption- reconstruction legislatures symbolized greed and corruption. • The economy- spent and never paid= huge debt • Violence- lack of troops left blacks to be harassed by whites. • Dems Return to Power solid south- ex. Confeds reversed reconstruction laws.

  38. Supreme Court Limits Scope of Amendments • Used cases to define 14th and 15th • Basic civil rights belonged to the state • Limited Federal Govs ability to protect AAs

  39. The Compromise of 1877 • Election of 1876 • Rep. Hayes loses popular vote, wins EC • Disputed and commission set up • Deal made • Hayes becomes President • Support money to build levees on Mississippi River • Give huge subsides to Southern Railroads

  40. Success • Union restored • South’s economy grew • 14th and 15th Amendment • Blacks became independent • Southern Education System

  41. Failures • South bitter toward Republicans • Slow to industrialize • Violence against AAs • Cycle of poverty • Racism