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Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Anatomy and Physiology Introduction

  2. Anatomy Study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts Greek word: ana “up”; temos or tomos “cutting” Students of anatomy still learn about structures of the human body by literally cutting it apart

  3. Dissecting A principal technique used to isolate and study the structural components or parts of the human body

  4. Biology Study of life Anatomy and physiology are subdivisions of this scientific area Anatomy can be divided into different types also Gross Anatomy: used to describe structures visible to the naked eye (LARGE) Microscopic Anatomy: includes the study of cells(cytology) and tissues(histology), etc

  5. Physiology The science that deals with the functions of the living organism and its parts Greek word: physis- “nature”; logos- words or study The study of physiology helps us understand how the body works

  6. Divisions of Physiology • Divided according to: • Type of organism (plant or animal) • Organizational Level Studied (molecular or cellular ) • Specific or Systemic function (neurophysiology, respiratory physiology, cardiovascular physiology)

  7. Characteristics of Life Responsiveness: allows organisms to sense, monitor and respond to the environment Conductivity: transmission of nerve signals Growth: increase in the size or number of cells Respiration: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

  8. Characteristics of Life Digestion: food substances are broken sown for use by cells Absorption: movement of materials for use by cells (usually digested materials) Secretion: production and delivery of specialized substances (digestive juices, hormones, etc)

  9. Characteristics of Life Excretion: removal of waste products produced during body functions Circulation: movement of body fluids within the system (includes nutrients hormones, waste products) Reproduction: formation of a new individual and new cells (cell division)

  10. Levels of Organization Chemical: atoms, molecules, macromolecules Organelle: structure made of molecules that can perform a specific function Cellular: smallest, most numerous structural units that possess and exhibit characteristics of life (in a 150 lb person, estimated 100 trillion cells)

  11. Levels of Organization Tissue: a group of many cells that developed together in the embryo and perform a certain function (4 major types: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous) Organ: a structure of different types of tissue that performs a special function System: several organs that perform a special function Organism: several organ systems working together for a common function (homeostasis)

  12. Organ Systems Cardiovascular: (AKA Circulatory) contains heart, arteries, veins, capillaries; moves blood, nutrients, waste products Digestive: prepares food for absorption and use by the body Endocrine: secretes hormones to stabilize body functions and maintain homeostasis

  13. Organ Systems Integumentary: skin and its appendages Lymphatic/Immune: defends against both internal and external enemies; maintains fluid balance Muscular: moves skeletal system, works with other systems to perform body functions Nervous: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves; communicates to send direction to other body systems

  14. Organ Systems Reproductive: propagation of the species Respiratory: exchange and movement of gases Skeletal: provides structure and support for the human body Urinary: process waste from blood and form urine