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Medicines and Drugs Option D

Medicines and Drugs Option D

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Medicines and Drugs Option D

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  1. Medicines and Drugs Option D

  2. D.1 Pharmaceutical products • Human body functioning needs defenses • 1st line skin, mucous membranes, eye tears, ear wax • 2nd line white blood cells (wbc), clotting mechanisms, inflammatory response • 3rd line antibodies, memory cells

  3. Inflammatory response • Release of histamine • Mucous production • Fever • Blood flow • Redness • Swelling • Pain

  4. Therapeutic effects of drugs • Alteration of the physiological state • Of incoming sensory sensations • Of mood or emotions

  5. Drugs target • Nervous system- analgesics, stimulants, depressants and mind-altering drugs • Or metabolism like antacids • supplement bodies resistance-antibacterials and antivirals

  6. Placebo • Power of suggestion • Release opioids • 1/3 show improvement

  7. Methods of administering drugs • Oral • Inhalation • Dermal • Suppositories • Eye or ear drops • Injection-intramuscular, intravenous(IV), subcutaneous

  8. effects • Therapeutic-intended • Side-unintended • may be beneficial, benign, or adverse

  9. Dosing regimen • Amount and frequency • Variables-sex, age, weight, diet and environment • Interaction with other drugs • Only IV drip keeps a constant level in the blood

  10. Tolerance • Reduced responses • Higher doses needed

  11. dependence • Addiction • Will suffer withdrawal symptoms • Physical or psychological • Can be mild or severe

  12. Development of drugs • Develop drugs that are more effective and/or have less side affects • New drugs • Much money spent on rich diseases • 35 new in 1996 only 22 in 2007 • ≈$800 million 10-12 years • Monitored by FDA

  13. Lead compounds • Derived from plants or microorganisms • Digitalis from foxglove flower • Analogues-chemically related • Tested on animals

  14. Development research on humans • 1) 50-100 healthy • 2) 200-400 patients • 3) 3000+ patients ½ with placebos double blind

  15. Regulatory review • Problem of thalidomide

  16. Post-marketing monitoring • Establish a database • Vioxx withdrawal in 2004 • $5 billion in lawsuits

  17. Generic name. Each medicine (drug) has an approved name called the generic name. A group of medicines that have similar actions often have similar sounding generic names. For example, penicillin, ampicillin, amoxycillin and flucloxacillin are in one group of antibiotics. • Brand name. Many medicines also have one or more brand names. This is chosen by the company that makes it. Several companies may make the same medicine, each with their own brand name. The name is often chosen to be memorable for advertising, or to be easier to say or spell than some long generic name! For example, paracetamol is a generic name. There are several companies that make this with brand names such as Tylenol, etc.

  18. Functional groups • Alkene • Alcohol, hydroxyl • Ketone • Benzene • Carboxylic acid • Ester • Ether • Chloro

  19. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines • Primary, secondary, and tertiary amides • Heterocylic ring with N or O in place of C • nitro

  20. Condensation reactions (byproduct of H2O) • Esters • amides

  21. Development of respiratory drugs Epinephrine

  22. Epinephrine bronkosol • Isuprel terbutaline

  23. Alupent albuterol • levalbuterol

  24. Do questions 1-3

  25. D.2 antacids • Solution to excess acidity • Stomach pH 1-2 normal • Kills bacteria, helps digestion • Excess acid causes indegestion, gastric reflux, ulcers? (probably bacterial) • Basic compounds

  26. Types • Al(OH)3 • Mg(OH)2 milk of magnesia faster acting • NaHCO3 • CaCO3 add antifoaming agents like dimethicone to carbonates • Alginates form rafts on top of stomach to stop reflux

  27. Do question 4

  28. D.3 Analgesics • Is pain good or bad? • A symptom of a • Bigger problem • Treat the problem

  29. Reception of pain • Pain receptors • Stimulated by prostaglandins (PG) released by injured cells • PG Mediate the inflammatory response • PG effect temperature

  30. Blocking pain

  31. Mild analgesics • NSAIDS • Prevent stimulation at the site of pain • Stop PG release • Non-narcotics (don’t involve the brain)

  32. Strong analgesics • Opiods (related to morphine) • Blocks pain signals in the brain • Can cause drowsiness (narcotics) • Must be monitored

  33. Pain triangle • 1 mild analgesic • 2 weak opiod (codeine or tramadol) • 3 strong opiods (morphine fentanyl, or methadone)

  34. aspirin • Willow bark • Bayer made the ester derivative of salicylic acid in 1890 • Most widely used drug in the world

  35. benefits • Painkiller • Fever reducer • Anti-inflammatory • Reduces ability of blood to clot • Prevents heart attacks and strokes

  36. Adverse effects • Irritation of the stomach • GI bleeding (especially with alcohol) • Allergies • Reye’s syndrome in children (liver and brain disorder) • Can be buffered

  37. Tylenol ( acetaminophen or paracetamol) • Painkiller • Fever reducer • Not anti-inflammatory • Does not irritate the stomach • Rare allergies • Can use for children

  38. Adverse effects • Serious kidney, liver and brain damage

  39. Strong analgesics • Opium-an extract of poppy seeds • codeine, morphine, heroin • Side effects constipation, cough suppresant, constriction of the pupil of the eye

  40. codeine • One alcohol and one ether • Use on second stage of pain management • Cough suppresent

  41. morphine • 2 OH groups • Severe pain management • Can be addictive

  42. Heroin (diamorphine) • Legal in Britain and Belgium • More oily (lipid, hydrophobic) so it can cross the blood-brain barrier quickly • Most abused narcotic • Produces euphoric effects • Withdrawal problems

  43. Heroin addict video • poppy field

  44. Long term use • Dulling of pain • Less fear and tension • Constipation • Poor nutrition • Quick dependence • Increased tolerance • Infections from injecting the drug • Methadone can reduce the craving

  45. Video on the brain

  46. Natural highsvideo • What is your philosophy of life? • Original American philosophy WESTMINSTER SHORTER CATECHISM • Q. 1. What is the chief end of man?A. Man’s chief end is to glorify God, and to enjoy him forever. • Are emotions good or bad? Anger, fear, hurt • Life is a balance.

  47. Natural highs • Falling in love. • Laughing so hard your face hurts. • A hot shower. • Getting mail. • Taking a drive on a pretty road. • Hearing your favorite song on the radio. • Lying in bed listening to the rain outside. • Hot towels out of the dryer. • Finding the sweater you want is on sale for half price. • Chocolate milkshake. (or vanilla!) • A long distance phone call. • A bubble bath. • Giggling. • A good conversation