Chapter 19: Politics & Progress Chapter Overview: The expansion of railroads through West Texas helped many farmers and ranchers to settle the western half of Texas. Railroad transportation brought in new goods for Texans to buy and opened new places where goods produced in Texas could be sold. Over time, dependence on railroads caused economic problems and frustration for many Texans, especially farmers and ranchers.
Reconstruction Ends Chapter 19 Section 1
A New Era Brings New Concerns(pages 432–433) • During the late 1800s, Texas experienced a lot of growth. • Railroads expanded, farming boomed, and industries and populations grew. Main Street Waco, Texas in late 1800s
Democrats Rewrite the Constitution(page 433) • In 1874 Democrats returned to power in Texas and a new state constitution was written in 1876 – this is the state’s current constitution (more than 400 amendments have been added). • The earlier state constitution of 1869 was written by Radical Republicans. Most state leaders disliked this constitution because they believed it gave too much power to only a few leaders.
Democrats Rewrite the Constitution(page 433) • The new Constitution of 1874 created a government with limited powers. • Provisions included: 1) limited the power of the governor 2) made the legislature meet every 2 years and set term limits on the legislature 3) lowered state employees’ salaries 4) guaranteed low taxes 5) reduced money to be spent on education
Democrats Rewrite the Constitution(page 433) • The U.S. Constitution’s 15th Amendment guaranteed voting rights for all men, but NOT women.
Democrats Control State Politics(page 434) • Most elected leaders after Reconstruction were conservative Democrats • The Texas Republican Party, which many African Americans supported, had little power. • Sometimes African Americans were threatened, denied jobs, or harmed if they tried to take part in politics or vote.
Spending Cuts Reduce State Debt(page 434) • The large public debt at the end of Reconstruction ($3 million) continued to increase. • It was $5.5 million by the spring of 1879 when Richard Hubbard succeeded Governor Coke. • Governor Oran M. Roberts took office in 1879 and balanced the budget by cutting pensions for veterans and school funding.
Lawmen Keep Order(pages 434–435) • Lawlessness was a major problem in Texas after the Civil War as many unemployed people flocked to the Texas frontier. • Some turned to robbing trains, stagecoaches, and banks, as well as cattle rustling and horse theft.
Texas Outlaws of the Late 1800s Sam Bass Billy the Kid John Wesley Hardin Jesse James
Texas Needs a Capitol(page 435) • The Constitution of 1876 included a plan for a new capitol. • On November 9, 1881, the existing capitol burned after catching fire during a rainstorm. • Work on a new capitol began in 1882 and was completed in 1888.
Texas Needs a Capitol(page 435) • The new capitol was modeled after the U.S. Capitol. • Texas’ capitol is the largest capitol building in the United States! • It has more square footage than any state capitol and is 7 feet taller than the U.S. Capitol.
Women Fight for Their Rights(pages 435–436) • Although women in Texas accounted for about half of the population by 1900, they did not have the same legal rights as men. • The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was the first Texas group to endorse suffrage.
Women Fight for Their Rights(pages 435–436) • The Texas Equal Rights Association had 48 charter members, including 9 men. • Other organizations included: • Texas Federation of Women’s Clubs, • the Texas Farmers’ Alliance • Texas Federation of Labor
Women Fight for Their Rights(pages 435–436) • The women of Texas would not gain the right to vote until after World War I.
Women at Work(page 436) • Most Texas women at the turn of the 20th century worked at home as wives, mothers, and homemakers. • Teaching was the most important profession open to women at the time. Some even started schools. • Some women worked as maids, secretaries, merchants, physicians, journalists, and artists.