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The Glory That Was Greece

The Glory That Was Greece

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The Glory That Was Greece

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  1. The Glory That Was Greece

  2. Resources for further research: • • • • • • •

  3. Time Periods • Minoan • Mycenaean • Dark Ages • Archaic • Classical • Hellenistic

  4. The Geography of Greece • Mountains • Hindered communication and unification • Caused growth of independent city-states • Seas and seaports • Peninsula with irregular coastline • Seaports encouraged development of trade • Poor farmland • Few crops could be grown • Forced to trade • Became leading traders of Aegean and eastern Mediterranean

  5. The Early Greeks • Hellenes – Indo-European nomads – Dorian, Aeolian, and Ionian tribes • Circa 1400-1000 B.C.E. – migration from Black Sea and Danube regions → modern-day Greece and Turkey • Conquered Cretans and other natives • Circa 1000 B.C.E. – controlled Greece, some of Asia Minor, and Aegean islands

  6. Greece’s Colonies • Circa 800-600 B.C.E. • Colonized areas around the Mediterranean – Italy’s west coast (Naples), Sicily (Syracuse), southern France (Marseilles), Egypt, Byzantium (Constantinople/Istanbul) • Spread Greek culture, language, religion

  7. Mycenaean and Minoan Civilization

  8. Greece and the Greek Colonies

  9. Forces Uniting the Greeks

  10. Forces Uniting the Greeks

  11. Greek Language and Alphabet

  12. Forces Uniting the Greeks

  13. Greek Religion

  14. Olympic Games

  15. Forces Disuniting the Greeks

  16. The Age of Homer • Circa 1000 B.C.E.-circa 750 B.C.E. • Greece’s “Dark Ages” – little information known • Iliad and Odyssey • People – farmers, traders, and warriors • Crops and livestock – cattle, grapes, olives, sheep, wheat Homer

  17. Legends of the Trojan War • Greeks at Ionia preserved many stories about the Mycenaeans. • Most famous legend was the Trojan War • Legends of the Trojan War were kept alive by Homer, a blind poet who lived in Ionia around 750 B.C. • He traveled from town to town, singing ancient stories

  18. Trojan War cast of characters • GREEKS • Achilles, known as strongest & bravest • Odysseus • Telemachus (Odysseus’ son) • Greater Ajax • Lesser Ajax • Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, had most powerful kingdom in Greece • Menelaus, king of Sparta, husband of Helen, brother of Agamemnon (usually has red hair) • TROJANS (FROM TROY) • Hector, Troy’s greatest warrior • Paris (Hector’s brother) • Priam , king of Troy, Hector and Paris’s father

  19. Trojan War

  20. Trojan War • War starts with Aprodite, Hera, and Athena fighting because Eris, the goddess of discord) gave them an apple labeled “for the fairest” • A Trojan prince named Paris decides that Aprodite wins • Aprodite in turn makes Queen Helen fall in love with him • Paris kidnaps Helen from her husband (Menelaus) • Agamemnon, Menelaus’s brother, led a 10 year war against Troy

  21. Trojan War • Greeks Achilles and Ajax die= considered best Greek fighters • Trojans Hector (Trojan prince, son of King Priam, honorable warrior) and Paris die • Troy falls to concept of the Trojan Horse. The Greeks construct a huge wooden horse and hide their men inside

  22. Spartan shield Trojan shield

  23. Trojan Horse victory by the Greeks • The Greeks pretended to sail away, and the Trojans pulled the horse into their city as a victory trophy. That night the Greek force crept out of the horse and opened the gates for the rest of the Greek army, which had sailed back under cover of night. The Greeks entered and destroyed the city of Troy, decisively ending the war.

  24. Trojan Horse • “Trojan Horse" has come to mean any trick that causes a target to invite an enemy into a securely protected bastion or space.

  25. King Agamemnon, king of wealthy Mycenae

  26. Achilles and Hector

  27. Achilles’ heel

  28. Trojan Horse

  29. Persian Empire • Founder= Cyrus the Great, very tolerant • Persians were Ayrans, like the people who migrated to India • Now this region is called Iran, which comes from word Ayran • Cyrus’ last conquest was Babylonians, treated the conquered well, allowed Jews to returned to homeland and gave Jews money to rebuild temple, which Babylonians had destroyed • Much info. comes from writing of 1st Greek historian Herodotus

  30. Cyrus the GreatCyrus and clemency (merciful) More a liberator than conquerer; Mentioned in the Old Testament 22 times; Freed Jews from Bablylon and allowed them to return to homeland; helped pay for rebuilding of Temple of Jerusalem when destroyed (1st time)

  31. 1st Greco-Persian Battle • Starts with Cyrus conquering Ionia • Ionians used to being ruled by tyrants, not a merciful Cyrus • Set up tyrants in area but wasn’t working • Ionian Revolt • Hoplite warfare • Battle of Marathon

  32. First Persian War • Cyrus the Great had conquered Greek city-states of Ionia • Ionians hated Persian rule and Persian taxes • 499 B.C. they asked Athens for help • Athens burned Persian city of Sardis • Persian troops recaptured Ionian leaders and Darius was angry • Revenge was to conquer all of Greece

  33. Battle of Marathon • 490 B.C. 20,000 Persian soldiers set sail for Greece • Land near Marathon, 26 miles from Athens • Small force of 10,000 Athenian infantry- no archers, no cavalry, outnumbered 2 to 1. • Athenians vote to attack, & next day at dawn, Greek phalanxes attack on all sides- Persians retreat • As Greeks closed in, Persians fled to their ships • Fastest runner, Pheidippides, had just returned from carrying a message to distant Sparta. Although exhausted, he set out for Athens • On reaching the city, he gasped, “Rejoice! We have won.” and then he collapsed and died • To honor battle and Pheidippides marathon runners cover the same distance of about 26 miles Pheidippides ran nearly 2,600 years ago

  34. Results of 1st Persian War • was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten • highlighted superiority of Greek hoplites • famous for the inspiration of the Marathon race

  35. Darius the Greattribute, roads, common currency, Persepolis, local govt. Persepolis Royal Road Daric satrap

  36. Darius • Conquered people had local self govt. but had to send tribute to the Persian emperor • Each province would pay only what produced- much more fair tax code • With the money, Darius built Persepolis • Darius created a common currency so gold coins could be accepted across empire from Ionia (Greece) to India and Babylonia • Used wealth to build roads- the Royal Road stretched from Sardis in Lydia to Susa in Babylonia • According to Herodotus, it took 3 months to carry a message from one city to the other. Postal stations were located a day’s ride apart along the way to get new messengers and fresh horses.

  37. Persian Empire • Darius the Great- under his rule, Persia became a HUGE multicultural empire • One approach, could follow example of China’s first emperor Shi Huangdi, by imposing uniform laws and standards • Persians created politics where there was local self-government • Darius divided empire into satrapies, with laws made by locals • Darius also sent each satrap (local official) a secretary who was the king’s spy and reported directly to Darius

  38. Persian defeat- Darius more determined • But before he could launch another attack, he dies • Son Xerxes wants to now punish Greeks • Herodotus describes the huge invasion forces Xerxes assembles, and decides to not take huge army in ships by land • Creates a floating bridge and leads about 100,000 men into Greece to start Second Persian War

  39. 2nd Greco-Persian Battle • Xerxes (Darius’s son) is Persian leader • 3 Major Battles: • Thermopylae (300, Leonidas, enduring strength of Spartans) • Salamis (naval battle) • Plataea and Mycale (terrestrial battle, showed military prowess of hoplite soldiers)

  40. Xerxes versus Spartans in Thermopylae- 300 • Many Greeks thought Persians were unstoppable • King Leonidas, ledge a small Spartan force to stop Persians at a narrow mountain pass called Thermopylae • Spartans held off the invaders, then a traitor showed the Persians another path through mts. • 300 Spartans chose death defeat • Herodotus wrote that when their weapons were gone, they fought on “with their hands and teeth” until every man was killed • (like Masada by Israelites instead of being defeated by Romans)

  41. Wooden Walls of Athens- Battle of Salamis about to occur • Terrified Athenians consulted the Oracle at Delphi • It said that “wooden walls” could save the Athenians • Many Athenians thought that meant city walls • Themistocles believed that the wooden walls meant ships • When Persians reached Athens, they found the harbor empty • Athenians had fled by ship to nearby islands • Persians burn down Athens, including temples on the Acropolis

  42. Battle of Salamis- by sea

  43. Battle of Salamis • Xerxes had throne set on a hill near Athens; Xerxes very confident and ready to watch his fleet destroy the Greek navy • He has 1,200 warships, and Greeks 380 ships • Themistocles had set a trap • Keep his fleet hidden while Persian ships filled narrow strait • Then Greeks attacked and rammed the crowded Persian ships • Soon strait was crowded with broken ships and impossible for Persians to escape • Instead of losing rest of his fleet, Xerxes sails for home

  44. “Golden Age” for Athens • Athenians celebrate their victory by introducing a “golden age” of art and learning • Pericles leads the way with a program for rebuilding the city • Athenians create marvels of art and architecture, including the Parthenon • Athens enjoys a golden age of philosophy, science, and literature.

  45. Timeline