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COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES DEFINITIONAL ISSUES PowerPoint Presentation
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COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES DEFINITIONAL ISSUES

COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES DEFINITIONAL ISSUES

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COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES DEFINITIONAL ISSUES

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  1. COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES • DEFINITIONAL ISSUES • Cognitive-motivational units and self-regulation • COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ABOUT THE SELF • Higgins: real/ideal/ought selves • Dweck: incremental vs. entity self-theories • MIDDLE-LEVEL UNITS • Types • Personal strivings and mental and physical well-being

  2. Do you remember this from intro lecture on motives? • CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR: • raises and fades over time • coherent (organized) • persistent and efficient • associated to a network of cognitions(images, beliefs, plans) • has emotional correlates and consequences(e.g., frustration)

  3. Integrating motives and cognitions …. COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES: Modern social-personality theories that emphasize the link between cognitions (beliefs, schemas, etc.) and motivation (goals, needs) in predicting behavior (e.g., persistence of action, emotions)

  4. Self-regulation: how cognitions, motivations, and emotions interact  RED: emotions GREEN: motivations PURPLE: cognitions  

  5. COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ABOUT THE SELF

  6. HIGGINS (1987): Real, Ideal, and Ought selves • Self-discrepancy theory: We are highly motivated to reduce discrepancies between how we actually see ourselves and how we actually would like to be and how we think we ought to be. • Real/Ideal discrepancies lead to feelings of depression and real/ought discrepancies to feelings of anxiety. OUGHT REAL IDEAL

  7. Higgins’ empirical demonstration of how real/ideal discrepancies lead to feelings of depression and real/ought discrepancies to feelings of anxiety: IDEAL PRIMING: Asking subjects to write an essay about about the qualities they would love to have (but don’t have) OUGHT PRIMING: Asking subjects to write an essay about about the qualities they think it’s their duty to have (but don’t have)

  8. DWECK (1990): Incremental vs. Entity self-theories PERFORMANCE GOALS LEARNING GOALS

  9. MIDDLE-LEVEL UNITS

  10. BROAD, DECONTEXTUALIZED MIDDLE-LEVEL UNITS SPECIFIC, SITUATIONAL

  11. advantages disadvantagesLEVEL 1highly personal highly decontextualized low B predictive valueLEVEL 4highly contextualized highly impersonal high B predictive valueLEVELS 2&3 personal contextualized medium B predictive value

  12. Research on Personal Strivings (Emmons, 1992)

  13. HAVING HIGH VS. LOW LEVEL OF STRIVINGS HAS DIFFERENT HEALTH CORRELATES !! (Emmons, 1992) Mostly High  worse mental health(e.g., more anxiety, depression) (e.g., improving this world) Mostly Low worse physical health(e.g. more colds, headaches) (e.g., be funny) Question for the class:Why?