What brain regions make up the brain stem? The hypothalamus, the thalamus, and the pons The diencephalon and the mesencephalon The mesencephalon, the pons, and the medulla oblongata The pons, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata
Which primary brain vesicle is destined to form the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata? Prosencephalon Rhombencephalon Myelencephalon Metencephalon
In what way(s) is the cranialdura mater structurally distinct from the spinal dura mater? It is formed of two layers. Some portions extend into the cranial cavity as dural folds. It contains dural sinuses. All of these are differences from spinal dura mater.
What are potential consequences of blockage of an interventricular foramen? Hugely expanded skulls in infants Brainstem stroke Damage to and distortion of brain in adults 1 and 3 are correct
How would decreased diffusion across the arachnoid granulations affect the volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles? Volume would increase. Volume would decrease. Volume would remain the same. Volume would fluctuate erratically.
Many water-soluble molecules that are relatively abundant in the blood occur in small amounts or not at all in the extracellular fluid in the brain. Why? Blood pressure increases in brain capillaries. Blood−brain barrier restricts ion movement. Neurons take up most ions. Neuroglia remove ions from CSF.
Why can damage to the medulla oblongata cause death? It contains cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers. It controls the ANS. It contains tracts that process information to and from the cerebellum. It contains the headquarters for the reticular activating system.
Which nuclei in the medulla oblongata are responsible for relaying somatic sensory information to the thalamus? Nuclei of superior and inferior colliculi Nuclei of cranial nerves VIII–XII The nucleus gracilis and the nucleus cuneatus The solitary nucleus and olivary nucleus
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the pons? VII, IX, and X III, IV, and VI V, VI, VII, and VIII IX, X, XI, and XII
Which of the cerebellar peduncles allows communication between the cerebellum and pons? Transverse cerebellar peduncles Middle cerebellar peduncles Inferior cerebellar peduncles Superior cerebellar peduncles
What is the primary function of the cerebellum? Controls reflexive movements of the eyes in response to visual stimuli Provides awareness of emotional states Coordination between voluntary and autonomic functions Coordinates rapid, automatic adjustments that maintain balance and equilibrium
Which component of the diencephalon is responsible for integration of the nervous and endocrine systems? Thalamus Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Mamillary bodies
Reflex movements of the eyes, head and neck are controlled by which area of the mesencephalon? Substantia nigra Red nucleus Inferior colliculi Superior colliculi
Damage to the lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus would interfere with the functions of which of the senses? Taste Sight Touch Smell
Which area of the diencephalon would be stimulated by changes in body temperature? Tuberal area of the hypothalamus Anterior nuclei of the thalamus Preoptic area of the hypothalamus Intermediate mass of the thalamus
Damage to the amygdaloid body would interfere with regulation of what division of the autonomic nervous system? Peripheral Somatic Sympathetic Parasympathetic
Which of the following is NOT a function of the limbic system? Establishing emotional states Linking the conscious, intellectual function of the cerebral cortex with unconscious, autonomic functions of the brain stem Facilitating memory storage and retrieval Directing somatic motor patterns associated with rage, pleasure, and pain
What name is given to axons carrying information between the brain and spinal cord, and through which brain regions do they pass? Projection fibers; diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum Commissural; both cerebral hemispheres Association fibers; diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum Arcuate fibers; within a single cerebral hemisphere
What symptoms would you expect to observe in an individual who has damage to the basal nuclei? Mental slowness and inability to perceive meaning from written symbols Conscious perception of touch and erratic muscle contractions Epileptic seizures Difficulty starting voluntary movements and decreased muscle tone
A patient suffers a head injury that damages her primary motor cortex. Where is the primary motor cortex and what functions will be lost due to the injury? Parieto-occipital sulcus/control over involuntary movements Postcentral gyrus/voluntary movements controlled by the specific regions damaged Precentral gyrus/voluntary movements controlled by the specific regions damaged Insula/ability to categorize items
Conscious perception of which senses would be affected by damage to the temporal lobes of the cerebrum? Olfactory and gustatory Olfactory and auditory Visual and auditory Auditory and gustatory
After suffering a stroke, a patient is unable to speak, but can understand what is said to him and can understand written messages. Which part of his brain has been affected by the stroke? Wernike’s area in the parietal lobe General interpretive area of the temporal lobe Primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe Broca’s area in the frontal lobe
Paul is having a difficult time remembering facts and recalling long-term memories. Which part of his cerebrum is involved? Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe
Which of these is NOT usually a characteristic function associated with the left cerebral hemisphere? Performing mathematical calculations Analyzing emotional context of a conversation Containing the general interpretive and speech centers Processing associated with reading, writing, and speaking
A patient who is hooked up to an EEG shows primarily beta waves. What are they doing? They are in deep sleep or have a brain disorder. They are in the early stages of sleep. They are concentrating on a specific task. They are extremely frustrated.
Which cranial reflex is stimulated by loud noises and what is the response? Tympanic reflex/reduced movement of auditory ossicles Vestibulo-ocular reflex/opposite movement of the eyes to stabilize field of vision Auditory reflex/eye or head movement 1 and 3 are correct