Music 101 surveys the major styles, composers, genres and selected works of the European art music education. The course will expand listening skills and knowledge of music terms, concepts, and vocabulary in order to discuss the art of music. Classroom Expectations • The expected outcome would be that students will acquire the ability to identify period compositions and composers based upon recognition of general stylistic criteria and be able to discuss general technical and historical aspects of compositions and performances Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit hours HWCHU BK-101 Fridays 5:30 to 8:45pm 12 weeks plus final exam
Required Materials Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit hours HWCHU BK-101 Fridays 5:30 to 8:45pm 12 weeks plus final exam • Companion Website: www.bedfordstmartins.com • Grove Dictionary of Music www.eid.nvcc.commnet.edu/login
Grading Criteria Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit hours HWCHU BK-101 Fridays 5:30 to 8:45pm 12 weeks plus final exam *During the Semester each student is required to attend at least one concert that is recommended by the teacher. Other concerts are allowed but must be approved by the instructor
Classroom attendance is an integral part of the college experience. The faculty of the college believes that regular class attendance is necessary for a student to derive the maximum benefit from the learning experience and the overall value of the class room instruction. College policy does not allow an instructor to issue, for academic reasons, an NC grade (No Credit) if a student has more absences per semester than the number of times the class meets each week. The grade of F (failure) is issued instead. For absences due to extenuating circumstances, it is the responsibility of the student to contact the instructor. Attendence Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit hours HWCHU BK-101 Fridays 5:30 to 8:45pm 12 weeks plus final exam
At NVCC we expect the highest standards of academic honesty. Academic dishonesty is prohibited in accordance with the Board of Trustee’s Proscribed Conduct Policy in section 5.2.1 of the BOT Policy Manual. The policy prohibits cheating on examinations, unauthorized collaboration on assignments, unauthorized access to examinations or course materials, plagiarism, and other proscribed activities. Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit hours HWCHU BK-101 Fridays 5:30 to 8:45pm 12 weeks plus final exam Academic Honesty • Plagiarism is defined as the use of another’s ideas or phrases and representing them as your own either intentionally or unintentionally.
Students are hereby notified that cellular phones and beepers are allowed in the class only if they are turned off or turned to a silent mode. Under no circumstances are telephones to be answered in class. Students who ignore this policy may be asked to leave class. When there are extenuating circumstances that require that a student be available by phone or beeper, the students should speak to the instructor prior to class, so that together they can arrive at an agreement concerning the device. Use of cellular phones Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit Hours Tuesdays & Thursdays 5:30 to 6: 50 pm A-507 12 weeks plus final exam
If Class is cancelled or delayed because of weather, the College website and certain radio and television stations will carry an announcement. If instructor is unable to attend class, the Arts and Humanities Division Office will advise students of alternative learning arrangements. Class Cancellation Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit Hours Tuesdays & Thursdays 5:30 to 6: 50 pm A-507 12 weeks plus final exam
Danbury Public Library is available for student computer and research needs hours of operation are: • Monday, Tuesday, Thursday from 10 am – 7pm; • Wednesday, 1-pm-7pm; • Friday, Saturday, 10am- 5pm; Sunday 1pm – 5pm. • WSCU – NVCC students can borrow books at these two location in Danbury. Must show proof of payment for NVCC classes. Library hours are: • Friday 8am – 4pm; • Saturday 10am-6pm; • Sunday 2pm – 6pm. Open Lab & Library Services Music Appreciation & History Music H101 3 credit Hours Tuesdays & Thursdays 5:30 to 6: 50 pm A-507 12 weeks plus final exam
Music, Sound, & Time Unit 1 - Fundementals
Chapter 1 Music, Sound, and Time We will listen to four different musical examples While listening please jot down the answers to the following questions: What mood does each piece create? What is the fabric of the piece (Instrumentation)? Mu H 101
Overall objectives todeveloping effective listening skills • Listening is the primary tool for understanding and enjoying music. • Repetition in listening to a single piece enables one to hear more and more; enhancing understanding and enjoyment. • Concepts and terms aid the process of learning to listen attentively; they increase awareness as they pinpoint specific elements of the aural experience. Mu H 101
Overall objectives to developing effective listening skills A musical experience (“Sonic event”) is the cumulative result of several factors: • elements of music working together (rhythm, pitch, dynamics, tone color, and so on) • the effect of these sounds and associated words and images on the listener • the listener’s interpretation of this effect based on past experiences and understanding Mu H 101
Properties of Music Music is part of this world of sound -- an art based on the organization of sounds in time. We distinguish music from other random sounds by recognizing the four main properties of musical sounds: • Pitch • Dynamics • Tone color • Duration 13 Mu H 101
Chapter 1 Music, Sound, and Time This Chapter covers the Fundamental Properties of Sounds and the vocabulary associated with each property Mu H 101
Four Principles of Music Mu H 101
Chapter 1 Music, Sound, and Time • As we listen to music, anyone of these elements can draw our attention: a memorable tune, a driving rhythm, unusual sound of an exotic instrument. • More often we respond to the combination of two or more of these elements without methodically analyzing the names and proportions of each. Mu H 101
Chapter 1 Music, Sound, and Time • Understanding these building blocks of music enhances our listening and provides a vocabulary with which to discuss a piece in some detail. • If we increase our capacity and awareness of these elements, the more we can enjoy listening to many types and kinds of music. Mu H 101
Pitch (Frequency) • The pitch we tune to is A=440 which means that the string vibrates back and forth 440 times per second • The vibrating string pushes the air molecules around it back and forth 440 per second. They jostle each other at the same frequency, creating sound waves • These sound waves radiate outwards, like waves in a pond, at a speed of about 1,000 feet (about 305 meters) per second Sound Vibrations are measured by cycles per second Mu H 101
Pitch (Frequency) • The vibrating air molecules set the eardrum in motion at the same rate of vibration. This vibration in turn, finds its way to the corresponding auditory nerve in the cochlea, which sends an electrical impulse that is perceived by the brain of the listener as A440. • The sound processing ability of the human ear is quite extraordinary. Even complex sound patterns such as noise, environmental sound, orchestral music, and so on are received by the ear as composite sound shapes that the brain interprets and translates into individual sounds The ear, constructed like a satellite dish, intercepts these vibrating molecules Mu H 101
What do you hear? We will listen to two different musical examples While listening please jot down the answers to the following questions: Describe the shape of the composition. What is the dynamic framework of the piece? How is the instrumentation used to create the dynamic effect? Evard Grieg “Hall of the Mountain King” From Peer Gynt Suite John Williams “Jaws” Mu H 101 20
Definite & Indefinite pitches • In music and hearing, a sound or note of definite pitch is one of which it is possible or relatively easy to discern the pitch or frequency of the fundamental. Sounds with definite pitch have harmonic frequency spectra or close to harmonic spectra (overtones) • A sound or note of indefinite pitch is one of which it is impossible or relatively difficult to discern the pitch or frequency of the fundamental. Sounds with indefinite pitch do not have harmonic spectra or have altered harmonic spectra. • Note that it is still possible for two sounds of indefinite pitch to clearly be higher or lower than one another, for instance, a snare drum invariably sounds higher in pitch than a bass drum because its sound contains higher frequencies. In other words, it is possible and often easy to roughly discern the relative pitches of two sounds of indefinite pitch, but any given sound of indefinite pitch does not neatly correspond to a given definite pitch. Mu H 101
Pitch (Frequency) Pitch: Highness and lowness of tone • Pitch is the relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound. • The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of its vibration • The faster the vibrations, the higher the pitch, the slower the vibrations the lower the pitch. • As previously mentioned vibration frequency is measured in cycles per second. Mu H 101 22 Music in America MU104 H & O
Pitch (Frequency) 1 On a piano the highest-frequency tone is 4,186 cycles per second And the lowest is about 27 cycles per second Standard of pitch is judged by A above middle C to be equal to 444 cycles per second. 23 Mu H 101
Pitch (Frequency) Consequently, the smaller the vibrating object the faster its vibrations and the higher the pitch. All other things being equal, the plucking of a short string produces a higher pitch than plucking a long string. Mu H 101 24 Music in America MU104 H & O
Pitch (Frequency) In Music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a tone. It has a specific frequency, such as A =440 cycles per second. The vibrations of a tone are regular and reach the ear at equal time intervals. On the other hand, noise-like sounds (squeaking breaks, or clashing cymbals) have an indefinite pitch because they are produced by irregular vibrations. Two tones will sound different when they have different pitches. The distance between any two tones is called an interval. Music in America MU104 H & O Mu H 101 25
Pitch (Frequency) When the tones are separated by the interval called an Octave, they sound very much alike. Their cycles are doubled. If the pitch was A=444 the octave higher would be A=888. A tone an octave lower would be A=222. When sounded at the same time, two tones an octave apart blend so well that they almost seem to emerge as one tone. The interval of an octave is important in music. It is the interval between the first and last tones of a major scale. DO–RE-MI-FA-SOL-LA-MI-RE-DO Mu H 101 26
Pitch (Frequency) The invention of solfege is ascribed to Guido of Arezzo. He used a series of six syllables to refer to the six degrees of the hexachord. These six syllables were drawn from the hymn to Saint John "Utqueantlaxis", because each of the six phrases of that hymn began on each of the six degrees of the hexachord: UtqueantlaxisresonarefibrisMira gestorumfamulituorum,Solve pollutilabiireatum,SancteIoannes. This hymn gave the six acrophonic syllables: Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La. In the course of time, "Ut" was changed to "Do" on the grounds that it was easier to sing, and the syllable "Si" was added to indicate the leading tone of the modern scale. (The name "Si" may perhaps derive from the first letters of "sancteioannes", although this is conjecture.) Music in America MU104 H & O
Pitch (Frequency) As time passed five pitches were added to the original seven. These five are produced by the black keys of the keyboard. All twelve tones like the original seven are duplicated in higher and lower octaves.
Pitch (Frequency) Though most music we know is based on definite pitches, indefinite pitches made by such musical instruments as gongs, cowbells, and woodblocks, come in different sizes and therefore produce higher or lower indefinite pitches. Contrast between higher and lower indefinite pitches play a vital role in contemporary western music and in musical cultures around the world.
Dynamics (Volume) • Dynamics are essentially degrees of loudness and softness in music. • Loudness is related to the amplitude of the vibration that produces the sound. • When instruments are played more loudly or more softly, or when there is a change in how many instruments are heard, a dynamic change results; such a change may be made either suddenly or gradually. • A gradual increase in loudness often creates excitement, particularly when the pitch rises too. On the other hand, a gradual decrease in loudness can convey a sense of calm. • A performer can emphasize a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it. We call an emphasis of these kind an accent.
Dynamics (Amplitude) In music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a sound or note, but also to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc.) or functional (velocity). The term is also applied to the written or printed musical notation used to indicate dynamics. • The two basic dynamic indications in music are: • p or piano, meaning "soft." • f or forte, meaning "loud" or "strong". • More subtle degrees of loudness or softness are indicated by: • mp, standing for mezzo-piano, and meaning "medium-quiet" or "moderately-quiet" and • mf, standing for mezzo-forte, and meaning "medium-loud" or "moderately-loud". • Beyond f and p, there are also • ff, standing for "fortissimo", and meaning "very loud" and • pp, standing for "pianissimo", and meaning "very quiet". Mu H 101
Dynamics (Volume) • Like many elements of music, a dynamic indication is not absolutely precise. • A tone has a dynamic level – is soft or loud – in relation to other tones around it. • The loudest sound of a single violin is tiny compared with the loudest sound of an entire orchestra, and even tinier compared with an amplified rock group. • But it is considered fortissimo (very loud) within its own context.
Tone Color (Timbre) • Timbre tells us the difference between a trumpet from a flute even when each of them is playing the same tone at the same dynamic level. • Tone color is described by the words such as bright, dark, brilliant, mellow and rich. • Like changes is dynamics, changes in tone color create variety and contrast. When the same melody is played by one instrument and then by another, it takes on different expressive effects because of each instrument’s tone color. • On the other hand, a contrast in tone color may be used to highlight a new melody: after violins play a melody, an oboe may present a contrasting one. • Tone colors also build a sense of continuity; it is easier to recognize the return of a melody when the same instruments play it each time. • Specific instruments can reinforce a melody’s emotional impact: the brilliant sound of a trumpet is suited to heroic or military tunes; the soothing tone color of a flute fits the mood of a calm melody.
LISTENING EXERCISE 1Pitch & Dynamics “Unfinished” Symphony Quiet and mysterious (pp) Rustling sounds Wind Instruments Single sharp accent sf Gets louder (Long cresc. tof, thenff, More accents) Sudden collapse (ppfollowed by dim.) New tune (marked pp by Schubert) Cuts off sharply; big sound (ff, more accents) (Similar pitch and dynamics effects for the rest of the excerpt) Sinking Passage Ominous (pp) 0:00 0:15 0:22 0:35 0:47 1:07 1:15 1:52 3:07 3:43 Mu H 101
Tone Color (Overtones) • We can tell a trumpet from a flute even when each of them is playing the same tone at the same dynamic level • The quality that distinguishes them – our third property of sound – is called Tone Color or timbre • Tone Color is described by words such as bright, dark, brilliant, mellow and rich • Changes in tone color create variety and contrast • When the same melody is played by one instrument and then by another it takes on different expressive effects because of each instruments tone color • On the other hand, a contrast in tone color can be used be used to highlight a new melody Mu H 101
Tone Color (Overtones) • Tone Colors also build a sense of continuity; it is easier to recognize the return of a melody when the same instrument plays it each time. • Specific instruments can reinforce a melody’s emotional impact: the brilliant sound of a trumpet is suited to heroic and military tunes; the soothing Tone Color of a flute fits the mood of a calm melody. • Composers , in fact, often create a melody with a particular instrument's Tone Color in mind • A practically unlimited variety of tone colors is a available through the instruments of the orchestra. Mu H 101
Tone Color (Overtones) • Combining different instruments – violin, clarinet, and trombone for example – results in new colors that the instruments cannot produce themselves. • Tone color can be changed by varying the number of instruments or voices that perform a melody. • Finally, electronic techniques developed in recent years allow composers to create colors completely unlike those of traditional instruments Mu H 101
Tone Color (Overtones) The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc. Human voice is specifically that part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary noise source. Generally speaking, the voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds, and the articulators. The lung (the pump) must produce adequate airflow to vibrate vocal folds (air is the fuel of the voice). The vocal folds (vocal cords) are the vibrators, neuromuscular units that ‘fine tune’ pitch and tone. The articulators (vocal tract consisting of tongue, palate, cheek, lips, etc.) articulate and filter the sound. The vocal folds, in combination with the articulators, are capable of producing highly intricate arrays of sound. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, surprise, or happiness. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. Mu H 101
WAGNER: Prelude to Die Walküre Please read “Prelude” on Page 4 of your book and listen to Wagner’s Prelude This musical example is given to introduce you to the musical listening charts provided in your text. Please refer to the section TO THE STUDENT on page xvii for a clear explanation Mu H 101
WAGNER: Prelude to Die Walküre Wagner: Prelude, Act I to The Valkyre Mu H 101
RHYTHM (Duration) • There are several interrelated aspects of understanding rhythm. They are: • Beat • Meter • Accent • Syncopation • tempo
RYTHMN EXAMPLES I got rhythm (1930) by George Gershwin Unsquare Dance (1961) by David Brubeck Danse du Sabre by Aram Katchaturian
Which one of the following instruments is not a woodwind. • Flute • Bassoon • English Horn • Oboe • French Horn • Clarinet
2.Which one of the following instruments is not a brass instrument. • Coronet • Trombone • English Horn • Tuba • French Horn • Euphoniam
3.Which one of the following instruments is not a string instrument. • Banjo • Violin • Harp • Piano • Cello • Viola
4.Which one of the following instruments is not a percussion instrument. • Snare drum • Clavé • Maracas • Cymbals • Timpani • Triangle • piano
5. The only string instrument in the orchestra that is plucked instead of bowed is: • Snare drum • Celesté • Violin • Harp • Trumpet • Clarinet • piano
6. Instruments that are played by the use of double reeds in the orchestra are: • Clarinets and Saxophones • Saxophones and Bassoons • Oboes and Flutes • Oboes and Bassoons • Trumpet and Piccolos • Clarinets and French Horns • Harp and Piano