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Direct and Indirect Experience

Direct and Indirect Experience

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Direct and Indirect Experience

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  1. Direct and Indirect Experience Effects on affective and cognitive responses in the attitude-behavior relation Millar & Millar

  2. Attitudes • Tool • Research • Influences

  3. Experience and Attitude-Behavior Relationship • Attitude influence is complex • Personality • Situation • Direct experience • Indirect experience

  4. Example: A new food • Reading about it • Attitude formed based on attributes or cognitions • COGNITIVE • Tasting it - the 2nd Street Bakery Bread • Attitude formed based on gut or emotional reaction • AFFECTIVE

  5. Major question • If direct and indirect experience changes the degree that an attitude is affectively or cognitively based, then how does this change the attitude’s ability to predict behavior? • Many researchers have proposed that some behavior is more cognitively driven and others more affectively driven.

  6. Terms to know • Instrumental behavior • preformed to accomplish a goal beyond the activity involved in performing it – more cognitively driven • Consummatory behavior • preformed only for the activity involved in performing it – more affectively driven (emotionally)

  7. Millar & Millar - hypothesis • Attitudes formed through direct experience produce more affective reactions and are better predictors of consummatory behavior. • Alternatively, attitude formed through indirect experience produce more cognitive reaction and are better predictors of instrumental behavior.

  8. Students + Puzzles – 3 studies • Study 1

  9. Students + Puzzles – 3 studies • Study 2

  10. Students + Puzzles – 3 studies • Study 3

  11. Overall results • Results are part of a body of evidence related to the usefulness of the distinction between affective and cognitive based attitudes. • Application to Environmentally Responsible Behavior? • Advantages? Disadvantages?

  12. Related article • Title: Engaging with the natural environment: The role of affective connection and identity • Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2008 • Test: research that shows greater experience with the natural environment leads to more pro-environmental attitudes. Affect can be both an important predictor of environmental attitudes and rate as more important by participants than cognitions. Greater experiences = greater affective connections.

  13. Method and Results • Survey • Rural vs. urban childhoods • Richard Louv – Last Child in the Woods • What will be the ramifications if direct experience in nature is lost? Will it effect ERB?