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From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design

From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design

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From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design

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  1. From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design Kelly 9710001M Dora 9710011M

  2. From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design • The Quest for New Methods • Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe • English for Specific Purposes • Needs Analysis in ESP • Communicative Language Teaching • Emergence of a Curriculum Approach in Language Teaching

  3. The Quest for New Methods • World War II  immigrants, refugees and foreign students  UK, Canada, US, Australia • There was much greater mobility of peoples in air travel, international trade and commerce.

  4. The Quest for New Methods Whites(1988,9) comments: • The emergence of the USA as an English- speaking superpower • The industrial and technological developments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  5. The Quest for New Methods • Explore new teaching method  linguistics  organization & structure of language • A new approach  Oral Approach Situational Language Teaching British

  6. The Quest for New Methods Situational Language Teaching in British • A structural syllabus with graded vocabulary levels • Meaningful presentation of structures in contexts • PPP method- Presentation/ Practice/ Production

  7. The Quest for New Methods • 1950s- Situational Approach British, Australia, Malaysia, India, Hong Kong • 1960s- Audiolingual Method United States • 1978s- Audiovisual Method Europe

  8. The Quest for New MethodsAudiolingual Method in US • Habits are strengthened by reinforcement • Foreign language habits are formed most effectively by giving the right response • Language is behavior

  9. Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe • The upsurge in English language teaching (since the mid-1950s~1960s)  A Language Teaching Revolution a) Introduce new methods and materials b) WHY/ HOW people learn a second language c) Evaluation results Jupp&Hodin(1975)

  10. Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe • In 1969s-The Council of Europe a) removed language barriers b) modern language enrichment c) the modern Europe language • In 1970s- The Decision of school system • In 1971s- The Unit-credit System for Adults

  11. Communicative Language Teaching in Europe • Whole context of teaching and learning • The need for society • The need for learners

  12. English for Specific Purpose • To make the courses relevant to learners’ needs • The Language for Specific Purpose Movement • The ESP approach concerns a) the need for Non-English background students b) the need for employment c) the need for business purpose d) the need for migrants

  13. English for Specific Purpose • University of Michigan  language patterns and vocabulary • A number of selected texts appeared in 1960s a) The selection and gradation books b) General English books c) Specialized English books d) Word Frequency Counts e) Discourse Analysis

  14. English for Specific Purpose • The widely used books Course in Basic Scientific English (Ewer& Latorre,1969) • The merits of this book: a) three million words of scientific English b) covering ten areas of science & technology c) sentence patterns d) structural words e) non-structural vocabulary

  15. English for Specific Purpose • The determine of “register ”: * what is actually taking place * what part the language is playing * who is taking part (Halliday 1978,31)

  16. English for Specific Purpose In 1970s the ESP approach: • Register Analysis distinctive patterns of occurrence of vocabulary, verb forms, noun phrases, and tense usage. • Three categories describes the register: * the research process * the vocabulary of analysis * the vocabulary of evaluation (Martin,1976)

  17. English for Specific Purpose In 1970s the ESP approach: • Discourse Analysis identify the linguistic structure of longer samples of speech or text. *analysis of units of organization within texts *speech events *examines patterns

  18. English for Specific Purpose In 1970s the ESP approach • Discourse analysis: The problem-solution structure a) Introduction b) Background c) Argument d) Conclusion

  19. Needs analysis in ESP The view of Stevens: (a) Restriction—Basic Skills of Understanding Speech, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. (b) Selection—Vocabulary, Patterns of Grammar, and Function of Language. (c) Themes and Topics—Themes, Topics, Situations, and Universes of Discourse. (d) Communicative Needs—For Communication

  20. Needs analysis in ESP (a) Learner’s Needs are Communicative Ability. (b) Preparation for Learners to Carry Out Tasks (c) Try to Perform a Role (Robinson) ex: waiters, food technology (d) Learners, Teachers, and Employers’ involvement (Richterich and Chanceril)

  21. Needs analysis in ESP Munby’s Systematic Approach: • Needs Analysis in ESP Course Design and Two Dimensions of Needs Analysis: (a) Specification for the Target-Level (b) Turning the Information into an ESP Syllabus

  22. Needs analysis in ESP Schutz and Derwing’s Summarizations for Profile of Communication Needs: • (a) Personal Information (f) dialects • (b) purpose (g) target level • (c) setting (h) events • (d) interactional variables (i) key • (e) communicative way

  23. Needs analysis in ESP Profile of Communication Needs: Ex: waiter/waitress 1.personal: who the employees are, their ages , education; background 2.purpose: the types of communicative skills the clients need to develop 3.setting: restaurant 4.Interactional variables: waiter/waitress to customer 5. Medium,mode,and channel: whether spoken or written; face to face 6.dialects:formal or casual styles 7.Target level: basic, intermediate, advanced level. 8.Anticpated communicated events: greeting,taking picture 9.key: politely, quietly

  24. Communicative language teaching 1. The Emergence of ESP 2. The Interval Between 1960s and 1970s =>a replacement for structural situation and audio-lingual methods. 3. The Europe =>Grammatical  Communicative

  25. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Wilkins’s notional syllabus (a) semantico-grammatical meaning: e.g. point of time, duration, time relations, frequency, and sequence (b) model meaning: modality, scale of certainty, scale of commitment (c) communicative function: request, complaints, apologies, suggestion

  26. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Yalden’s Descriptions for Communicative Syllabuses (1)Learner’s Purpose (2)The Setting (3) Learner’s Capacity (4)Participation (5)Language function (6)Notion (7)Skills (8)Variety (9)Grammar (10)Lexicon

  27. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching • A curriculum in a school context refers to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in schools. Rodgers(1989) • Syllabi: the content to be covered by a given course, from only a small part of the total school program. • Curriculum: those activities in which children engage under the auspices of the school.

  28. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching • Tyler(1949)---statements on the nature and process of curriculum development (1) educational purposes to be sought. (aims and objectives) (2) educational experiences to be provided. (content) (3) educational experiences to be organized. (organization) (4)educational experience to be attained (evaluation)

  29. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching The different opinions between Lawton and Tyler: • Lawton’s Statement—Teacher’s Behavior for Educational Objectives • Tyler’s Statement—Learner’s Behavior for Educational Objectives

  30. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Nicholls and Nicholls's description in 1972s: (a) The Careful Examination (b)The Development and Trial Use (c)The Assessment of the Extent (d)The Final Element (e)The Adoption in 1980s

  31. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching The Focuses on the Curriculum Development: • Needs Analysis • Situational Analysis • Learning Outcome • Course Organization • Selecting Teaching Material • Preparing Teaching Material • Providing for Effective Teaching • Evaluation

  32. Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Clark’s Statement on the Curriculum Development: • The Review of Principles • The Reworking of Syllabuses • The Review of Strategies • Embodying Appropriate Learning Experiences • The Review of Assessment Designed • The Review of Classroom Schemes • The Review and Creation of Strategies Designed • The Further Research • The Review or Devising on In-service Education Designed

  33. Thanks for your listening