the french revolution and napoleon bonaparte n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte

The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte

255 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte Please answer the questions on the worksheet as we go. Answers need not be in complete sentences.

  2. French Society in the 18th Century • First Estate: The Clergy • 130,000 people • Owned 10% of land • Exempt from taxes • Divided between those of Noble birth and those of Common birth.

  3. French Society in the 18th Century • Second Estate: The Nobility • 350,000 people • Owned 30% of land • Exempt from taxes • Held important government offices • Wanted to gain more power over the king

  4. French Society in the 18th Century • Third Estate: The Common People • 27 million people • Great divisions of wealth and education • 75% = peasants (owned 40% of land) • Still had obligations to local lords (like mill taxes) • 15% = artisans, shopkeepers, workers in cities • Upset by increasing cost of living • 10% = middle class (“bourgeoisie”) (owned 20% of land) • Merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors, government office holders, etc. • Felt excluded from power of nobles (even though they were wealthy)

  5. Problems pour Le France • Louis XVI’s France faced some severe problems… • They had just lost land to England in the Seven Years’ War • 1787 and 1788 saw terrible harvests • This led to a food shortage • Marie Antoinette supposedly said: “Let them eat cake” • shows how out of touch the ruling class was. • …and a decline in production of other goods • …and unemployment • …all leading to over one-third of the people living in poverty… • …and near bankruptcy for the government!

  6. The Estates General • The Estates-General was an old form of decision-making where each of the three estates sent representatives to vote on major policies. • Louis XVI called for the first meeting of the E-G since 1614! • But, the third estate complained that they were under-represented. • So, Louis XVI allowed them to elect twice the normal number of representatives. • But, each estate was still only allowed one vote…

  7. The National Assembly • Met on May 5, 1789. • First Issue: Two Options for Voting Structure • Each “order” gets 1 vote • so 1st and 2nd estate would dominate over the 3rd • Each delegate gets 1 vote • Would allow commoners with help of a few liberals in 1st and 2nd estate to have control. • When the first estate opposed the second plan, the third estate declared themselves to be the “National Assembly” and began to write a new constitution.

  8. Storming of the Bastille • Louis XVI prepared to use troops against the National Assembly. • So, Parisian commoners decided to arm themselves by raiding the armory (and prison) known as the Bastille. • Bastille Day, July 14th, is the French version of July 4th. • Lead to peasant uprisings all over France.

  9. Destroying the Ancien Regime • The National Assembly began to change the laws: • Abolished rights of landlords & tax exemptions for nobles and clergy. • Catholic leaders were now elected by the people and paid by the state. • So the Catholic Church opposed the Revolution…

  10. Declaration of the Rights of Man • The National Assembly adopted “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” (1789) • “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” • Rights include “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” • “Law is the expression of the general will; all citizens have the right to concur personally or through their representatives in its formation; it must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes.” • Freedom of religion, speech, etc.

  11. The Reign of Terror • The National Assembly abolished the monarchy and executed Louis XVI. • All the other monarchies in Europe united to crush the French Revolution. • So, the National Assembly’s “Committee on Public Safety” took over. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, they formed a huge (650,000 soldiers) nationalist “people’s army” to fight for their freedom. • They also killed nearly 16,000 French people who disagreed with some of the “revolutionary” policies. • Eventually, Robespierre was guillotined as well for taking the “Reign of Terror” too far.

  12. Napoleon Bonaparte • In 1799, a 30-year old French Brigadier General, Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup and established a new government—the “Consulate.” • He appointed himself “First Consul,” and later Consul for life. • In 1804 he had himself crowned “Emperor.” • Policies: • Unified laws. Kept most revolutionary ideas. • Government jobs based on talent, not birth. • Made peace with Catholic Church (but didn’t return their lands).

  13. Napoleon’s Empire • Napoleon and his army eventually conquered or forced alliances with most of Europe. • In many countries he set his relatives up as rulers. • He spread revolutionary ideals to the lands he conquered: • Equality before the law, religious tolerance, meritocracy, etc.

  14. Napoleon’s End • He couldn’t defeat Britain—they’re navy beat him at Trafalgar (1805) • Tried to ban trade with Britain (“the Continental System”) • Russia pulled out of the Continental System • Napoleon invaded in 1812 • Russians kept retreating, burning their own villages and even Moscow. • Only 40,000 of Napoleon’s 600,000 troops made it home. • 1814: Paris captured, Monarchy restored, Napoleon sent to prison. • 1815: Napoleon escapes! • Raises army again, but defeated by British and Prussians at Waterloo.