An Overview of Smart Grid Standards Erich W. Gunther email@example.com February 2009
Why Use Standards? • Avoid re-inventing the wheel • Learn from industry best practices • Specify requirements more easily • Reduce integration costs • Prevent single vendor “lock-in” • Vendors share a much larger market
Making Standards Work Items critical to a successful standard: • Mature spec • Involved user group • Certification process • Revision process • Marketing, labeling • Implementations • Tool sets
Why International Standards? • Several Advantages • Time-tested process • Proven fair and open • Can be accelerated if needed • Other alternatives: • “de Facto” needs a market-maker • Industry consortia can work well • E.g. ZigBee, HomePlug, Cable Labs • User groups can create requirements specifications • E.g. OpenHAN, AMI-SEC, AMI-Enterprise • Work even better if endorsed by a standards org
Standards in the Smart Grid • EPRI IntelliGrid Architecture, http://www.intelligrid.info • Catalog of Use Cases, Standards, Technologies Real-time Simulation Wide-Area Reliability Network Optimization Customer Participation Participation in Energy Markets
Enterprise and Control Center • There is a culture of manual integration • Very labour-intensive and costly • Object models and services defined, but… • A variety of underlying technologies: UML, XML, OWL, XSD, RDF, OPC • Working on agreement on a design framework
T&D Wide-Area Networks • Many of these are considered obsolete or aging in the general IT world • Still in common use in the power system
T&D Substations • Automation common in transmission • Business case tough in distribution • Well-known problems and solutions • Moving to the next level
Access Wide-Area Networks • Used to reach the Collector or Substation • Too expensive, too unreliable or too slow for actual access to home
A B Network A Network B A B Field Area Networks – Distribution and AMI • Offerings mostly proprietary • Wireless mesh, licensed or unlicensed • Power line carrier, narrowband or broadband • New standard activity just started in 2008 • Open standards not useful yet • Cellular, WiMAX, ADSL, Cable, FITL • Not economical or not reliable or both • Mostly only reach the Collector level • Interop solution: common upper layer • Network layer preferred: IP suite • Most don’t have bandwidth • Application layer instead: ANSI C12.22 • Too flexible, not enough interoperability • Need guidelines, profile from users • More bandwidth the main solution!
Home Area Networks • ZigBee and HomePlug alliance • Popular open specifications • LONWorks, Insteon, Z-Wave, X10 – popular proprietary networks • Challenges coming in Electric Vehicles
Distributed Resources and Commercial • Rapidly growing, but tend to be “islands of automation” • Concerns over integration with power utilities • Need to get people talking
Standards Challenges for Smart Grids • Need Common Object Models • Wishy-washy standards • More bandwidth in the field • Proprietary field networks • Too many stds. in the home • Merging power and industry • Merging meters and distribution automation • Holistic security
Summary We have the technology. We have the lessons learned. We just have to apply it!
Address design in breadth and depth • A software application is evident to users only at one level • Must operate transparently to the appropriate depth to interact with other systems • May be tied to key hardware elements of the system • If tied, must be upgradable and extensible • If hardware is exchanged, must continue transparent operation (with some configuration) • At the physical level, not allways possible to have an appropriate connection that facilitates openness and competition (e.g., meter under-glass interface for communications boards; multi-vendor interface inside of relays)
Recommended focus areas • Standard field LANs (FANs) • Innovation drived by vendor tension • More field bandwidth • Eliminate single-purpose networks and facilitate innovation • CIM design framework • Tighten allowable choices and develop implementation guide • CIM application security • Guidelines needed for verifiable security • CIM / IEC 61850 harmonization • Motivate users group to eliminate identified gaps • IEC 61850 outside of the substation • Incentivize vendors to extend reach of products and systems
Recommended focus areas, pt. 2 • ANSI C12 guidelines • Demand demonstrations of interoperable products • Finish AMI-SEC work products • Component catalog and implementation guide • Asset Management • Incentivize utilities to leverage infrastructure to better manage business • Distributed Energy Resources • Re-think and re-design hardware and software to account for two-way energy flow • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles • Need policies, regulations, business model, standards, etc.
Key Strategies • Drive stakeholders from standards development to interoperability demonstrations • Holistic targets eliminate single-purpose design and incompatibilities • Technical, communications, environment, regulation, etc. • Apply systems engineering and third-party metrics to avoid single-entity rate-or-return projects
Key recommendations • DOE GridWise Architecture Interoperability Checklist should be used by policy makers to evaluate utility proposals • Smart Grid News technology/product/project checklist or equivalent should be used to validate “smartgridness” • Standards-based solutions should be favored over proprietary solutions via legislation, rules and regulations • Desired outcomes and important characteristics (e.g., interoperability) should be specified by policy makers rather than specific standards (where possible) • Research needed to accelerate development and fill the gaps in security, smart grid networks, device management, information privacy and field network interoperability