Thirteenth Edition Adolescence by John W. Santrock University of Texas at Dallas PowerPoint slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, PhD Touro College
Chapter 12: CultureOutline • CULTURE, ADOLESCENCE, AND EMERGING ADULTHOOD • The Relevance of Culture for the Study of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood • Cross-Cultural Comparisons • Rites of Passage
Chapter 12: CultureOutline • SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND POVERTY • What Is Socioeconomic Status? • Socioeconomic Variations in Families, Neighborhoods, and Schools • Poverty
Chapter 12: CultureOutline • ETHNICITY • Immigration • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood • A Special Juncture for Ethnic Minority Individuals • Ethnicity Issues • The United States and Canada • Nations with Many Cultures
Chapter 12: CultureOutline • THE MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY • Media Use • Television • The Media and Music • Technology, Computers, and the Internet • Social Policy and the Media
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Culture and Adolescence • In chapter 1, culture was defined as the behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation. • The products result from the interaction between groups of people and their environment over many years.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • The Relevance of Culture • Schools and neighborhoods are no longer the fortresses of a privileged group whose agenda is the exclusion of those with a different skin color or different customs. • Immigrants, refugees, and ethnic minority individuals increasingly decline to become part of a homogeneous melting pot, instead requesting that schools, employers, and governments honor many of their cultural customs.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • The Relevance of Culture (Continued) • In the 20th century, the study of adolescents and emerging adults was primarily ethnocentric, emphasizing American values, especially middle-SES, white, male values (Spencer, 2000). • One example: • Ethnocentrism—the tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups—is the American emphasis on the individual or self.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • The Relevance of Culture • People in all cultures have a tendency to: • Behave in ways that favor their cultural group. • Feel proud of their cultural group. • Feel negatively toward other cultural groups. • Over the past few centuries and at an increasing rate in recent decades, technological advances in transportation, communication, and commerce have made these ways of thinking obsolete.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Cross-Cultural Comparisons • Cross-cultural studies involve the comparison of a culture with one or more other cultures, which provides information about the degree to which the development of adolescents and emerging adults is similar, or universal, across cultures, or the degree to which it is culture-specific (Schlegal, 2009).
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Individualism and Collectivism • The search for basic traits has focused on the dichotomy between individualism and collectivism (Triandis, 2007). • Individualism • Giving priority to personal goals rather than to group goals. • It emphasizes values that serve the self, such as feeling good, personal distinction and achievement, and independence. • Collectivism • Emphasizes values that serve the group by subordinating personal goals to preserve group integrity, interdependence of the members, and harmonious relationships.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood Characteristics of Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures Fig. 12.1
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Individualism and Collectivism (Continued) • Compared with collectivist cultures, individualistic cultures have higher rates of suicide, drug abuse, crime, teenage pregnancy, divorce, child abuse and mental disorders.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Individualism and Collectivism (Continued) • A recent analysis proposed four values that reflect parents’ beliefs in individualistic cultures about what is required for children’s and adolescents’ effective development of autonomy: • Personal choice. • Intrinsic motivation. • Self-esteem. • Self-maximization (Tamis-LeMonda & others, 2008).
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Individualism and Collectivism (Continued) • The analysis also proposed that three values reflect parents’ beliefs in collectivistic cultures: • Connectedness to the family and other close relationships. • Orientation to the larger group. • Respect and obedience. • Critics of the individualistic and collectivistic cultures concept argue that these terms are too broad and simplistic, especially with increase in globalization (Kagitcibasi, 2007).
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood Average Daily Time Use of Adolescents in Different Regions of the World Fig. 12.3
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • How Adolescents Around the World Spend Their Time • There is considerable variation across different countries in the number of hours adolescents spend in paid work. • U.S. adolescents spend about 40 percent less time on schoolwork than East Asian adolescents. • About 40 to 50 percent of U.S. adolescents’ waking hours was spent in discretionary activities, compared with 25 to 35 percent in East Asia and 35 to 45 percent in Europe. • The largest amounts of U.S. adolescents’ free time were spent using the media and engaging in unstructured leisure activities, often with friends.
Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging Adulthood • Rites of Passage • Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual’s transition from one status to another, such as the entry into adulthood. • Some societies have elaborate rites of passage that signal the adolescent’s transition to adulthood; others do not (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2008). • The absence of clear-cut rites of passage makes the attainment of adult status so ambiguous that many individuals are unsure whether they have reached it or not.
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • What Is Socioeconomic Status? • The grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics. Socioeconomic status carries with it certain inequalities: • Occupation • Education • Economic resources • Power to influence
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • Socioeconomic Variations in Families, Neighborhoods, and Schools • Parenting style • Intellectual experiences • Mental health • Negative experiences
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • Poverty • Some adolescents are resilient and cope with the challenges of poverty without major setbacks, but many struggle unsuccessfully. • In 2006, 17 percent of children under 18 years of age were living in families below the poverty line (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2008). • The U.S. figure of 17.8 percent of children living in poverty is much higher than those from other industrialized nations.
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty Living in Distressed Neighborhoods Fig. 12.4
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • Ramifications of living in poverty • Health. • Housing/neighborhoods. • Often powerless/having less prestige. • In occupations, they rarely are the decision makers. • Rules are handed down to them in an authoritarian manner. • Vulnerable to disaster. • Range of alternatives is often restricted.
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • Feminization of poverty • Far more women than men live in poverty. • Likely causes include: • Lower income for women. • Divorce. • Resolution of divorce cases by the judicial system—leaves women with less money than needed to function adequately.
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • Countering Poverty’s Effects • One trend in antipoverty programs is to conduct two-generation interventions (McLoyd, Aikens, & Burton, 2006): • Services for children • (such as educational day care or preschool education). • Services for parents • (such as adult education, literacy training, and job skill training).
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty • Antipoverty Programs • Programs that benefit adolescents living in poverty: • The Quantum Opportunities Program • El Puente
Ethnicity • Immigration • Relatively high rates of immigration are contributing to the growth in the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents and emerging adults in the United States (Fuligni, Hughes, & Way, 2009; Liu & others, 2009). • Stressors • Language barriers • Dislocation • Separation from support network • Preserve identity • SES (Kim & others, 2009)
Ethnicity • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Special Juncture for Ethnic Minority Individuals • Most ethnic minority individuals first consciously confront their ethnicity in adolescence. • They become acutely aware of how the majority white culture evaluates their ethnic group (Comer, 1993). • Ethnic minority youths’ awareness of negative appraisals, conflicting values, and restricted occupational opportunities can influence their life choices and plans for the future (Diemer & others, 2006).
Ethnicity • Ethnicity Issues • A number of ethnicity issues are involved in the development of adolescents and emerging adults. • Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status • A higher percentage of ethnic minority children and youth live in families characterized by poverty than non-Latino children and youth (McLoyd & others, 2009). • In 2006, 33 percent of African American children and adolescents and 27 percent of Latino children and adolescents lived in poverty compared to 10 percent of non-Latino white children and adolescents (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2008).
Ethnicity • Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status (Continued) • Much of the research on ethnic minority adolescents and emerging adults has failed to identify distinctions between the dual influences of ethnicity and SES (Huston & Ripke, 2006). • Many ethnic minority adolescents experience a double disadvantage: • Prejudice, discrimination, and bias because of their ethnic minority status. • The stressful effects of poverty.
Ethnicity • Differences and Diversity • Historical, economic, and social experiences produce legitimate differences among various ethnic minority groups, and between ethnic minority groups and the majority non-Latino white group (Gollnick & Chinn, 2009). • Differences does not equal deficits. • Ethnic minority groups are not homogeneous. • Research on ethnic minority groups often focused only on a group’s negative, stressful aspects.
Ethnicity • Prejudice, Discrimination, and Bias • Prejudice is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual because of the individual’s membership in a group. • The group toward which the prejudice is directed can be made up of people of a particular ethnic group, sex, age, religion, or other detectable difference (Paluck & Green, 2009).
Ethnicity African American Adolescents’ Reports of Racial Hassles in the Past Year Fig. 12.5
Ethnicity • The United States and Canada: Nations with Many Cultures • The United States has been and continues to be a great receiver of ethnic groups. • Canada comprises a mixture of cultures that are loosely organized along the lines of economic power. The Canadian cultures include: • Native peoples, or First Nations, who were Canada’s original inhabitants. • Descendants of French settlers who came to Canada during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. • Descendants of British settlers who came to Canada during and after the seventeenth century, or from the United States after the American Revolution in the latter part of the eighteenth century.
Ethnicity (Continued from previous slide) • The United States and Canada: Nations with Many Cultures • The late nineteenth century brought three more waves of immigrants: • From Asia, mainly China, immigrants came to the west coast of Canada in the latter part of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. • From various European countries, immigrants came to central Canada and the prairie provinces. • From countries in economic and political turmoil (in Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East), immigrants have come to many different parts of Canada.
The Media and Technology • Media Use • Mass media play important roles in adolescents’ lives. (Murray & Murray, 2008; Roberts, Henriksen, & Foehr, 2009). • On average, youth spend 6 ½ hours a day (44 ½ hours a week) with media while spending only 2 ¼ hours a day with parents and just 50 minutes a day on homework. • Two-thirds have a TV in their bedroom. • About 50 percent have a TV, a VCR/DVD player, 2.1 video game consoles, and 1.5 computers.
The Media and Technology (Continued from previous slide) • Use of Media • Adolescents spend the most time watching TV (just over 3 hours a day). • A major trend in the use of technology is the dramatic increase in media multi-tasking (Roberts, Henriksen, & Foehr, 2009). • It is not unusual for adolescents to simultaneously watch TV while text messaging their friends. • TV viewing and video game playing often peak in early adolescence and then begin to decline at some point in late adolescence in response to competing media and the demands of school and social activities (Roberts, Henriksen, & Foehr, 2009).
The Media and Technology Amount of Time U.S. 8- to 18-Year-Olds Spend Per Day in Different Activities Fig. 12.6
The Media and Technology Developmental Changes in the Amount of Time U.S. 8- to 18-Year-Olds Spend with Different Types of Media Fig. 12.7
The Media and Technology (Continued from previous slide) • Media Use • Large, individual differences characterize all forms of adolescent media use. • Gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are all related to which media are used, to what extent, and for what purposes (Roberts, Henriksen, & Foehr, 2009). • As adolescents become older, “television viewing decreases, music listening and computer use increase, and media tend to migrate to adolescents’ bedrooms” (Roberts, Henriksen, & Foehr, 2004, p. 492). • As adolescents become older, they are more likely to use media alone or with friends or siblings, indicating increasing independence from parents and the importance of peers.
The Media and Technology • Television • Few developments during the second half of the 20th century had a greater impact on children than TV (Asamen, Ellis, & Berry, 2008; Strasberger, Wilson, & Jordan, 2008). • Many children and adolescents spend more time in front of the TV set than they do with their parents. • TV’s positive effects • Presents motivating educational programs. • Increases children’s and adolescents’ information about the world beyond their immediate environment. • Provides models of prosocial behavior (Schmidt & Vandewater, 2008; Wilson, 2008).
The Media and Technology • TV’s negative influence • Fosters passive learners. • Distraction from doing homework. • Teaches stereotypes. • Provides violent models of aggression. • Presents unrealistic views of the world (Murray & Murray, 2008).
The Media and Technology • Television and Violence • Correlation research • Indicates that watching television violence is associated with aggressive behavior. • Experimental research • Provides evidence that viewing television violence can increase aggression.
The Media and Technology Educational TV Viewing in Early Childhood and High School Grade Point Average for Boys Fig. 12.8
The Media and Technology • Television and Violence(Continued) • The television that young children watch may influence their behavior as adolescents. • There is increased concern about children and adolescents who play violent video games, especially those that are highly realistic(Escobar-Chaves & Anderson, 2008) • Research indicates that children and adolescents who extensively play violent electronic games are more aggressive, less sensitive to real-life violence, more likely to engage in delinquent acts, and are more likely to get lower grades than their counterparts who spend less or no time playing (Escobar-Chaves & Anderson, 2008).
The Media and Technology (Continued from previous slide) • Television and Sex • The number of sexual scenes on TV nearly doubled from 1998 through 2004 (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). • Watching television sex can influence adolescents’ sexual attitudes and behavior. • Television teaches children and adolescents about sex (Collins, 2005; Ward, Day, & Epstein, 2006). • The overall conclusion about adolescent exposure to sex in the entertainment media is very negative (Collins, 2005; Ward, Day, & Epstein, 2006).
The Media and Technology • Television and Achievement • The more adolescents watch TV the lower their school achievement is (Comstock & Scharrer, 2006). • Three possibilities involve interference, displacement, and self-defeating tastes/preferences (Comstock & Scharrer, 2006). 1. Interference • Having television on while doing homework can distract children while they are doing cognitive tasks, such as homework.
The Media and Technology (Continued from previous slide) • Television and Achievement(Continued) 2. Displacement • Television can take away time and attention from engaging in achievement-related tasks, such as homework, reading, writing, and mathematics. 3. Self-defeating tastes/preferences • Television attracts adolescents to entertainment, sports, commercials, and other activities that capture their interest more than school achievement. • Adolescents who are heavy TV watchers tend to view books as dull and boring (Comstock & Scharrer, 2006).
The Media and Technology (Continued from previous slide) • Television and Achievement (Continued) • Some types of television content—such as educational programming for young children—may enhance achievement. • Sesame Street and Mr. Roger’s Neighborhood