The 1920s The Roaring Twenties
Rural Agricultural Small towns and farms Conservative Values Strong links to family and church Church set moral standards Farmers suffer financially… Why? Urban People begin to move into cities in the 1920s N.Y. = 5.6 million Chicago= 3 million Why did cities grow so quickly? Freedom from families and church leads to what? Rural VS. Urban Society
The Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age • Where had African Americans moved during and after WWI? Why? • Harlem • 1920s: Population grows from 152,000 to 330,000 • Overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty are eclipsed by the rich cultural movement known as the Harlem Renaissance.
Jazz is born in the early 20th century in New Orleans Joe Oliver and his Creole Jazz band move north and bring jazz with them Trumpet player Louis Armstrong is part of the band and will become the most important and influential musician in the history of jazz. Harlem Renaissance is above all a literary movement Writers express pride in their African American culture and heritage Langston Hughes is the movement’s best known poet His poems often move to the tempo of jazz or the blues. Louis Armstrong Langston Hughes
“ I, Too, Sing America” by Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America.
Women in the 1920s • In the rebellious, pleasure loving air of the 1920s, many women begin to assert their independence. • What rights do women have before the 1920s?
A New Life for Women The flapper: emancipated woman who embraced new fashions and urban attitudes Women get new job opportunities Society begins to view marriage as more of an equal partnership The 19th Amendment is ratified in 1920
American Society • Schools • From 1914 to 1926: Enrollment goes from 1 million to 4 million • Began to focus on college prep • Had to meet needs of growing immigrant students • Expanding news coverage • Literacy is increased by widespread education • Radio comes of age
New Heroes • More money and leisure time= need for entertainment • Sports • Babe Ruth becomes known as the Sultan of Swat • Jack Dempsey reigns supreme in the boxing ring • Red Grange (a.k.a. The Galloping Ghost) and Knute Rockne’s Fighting Irish make college football popular • Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim across the English Channel
America’s Most Beloved Hero • Charles Lindbergh is America’s Golden Boy
Movies, Theater and More • Films: By 1925, movies are America’s 4th largest industry • Charlie Chaplin, Clara Bow, and Rudolph Valentino rise to stardom in silent movies • 1927 The Jazz Singer- America’s first film with sound • 1928 Steamboat Willie
George Gershwin establishes himself as America’s foremost modern composer • Painter Georgia O’Keefe begins her career • F. Scott Fitzgerald writes about the life of the wealthy, while Ernest Hemingway condemns the glorification of war.