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Nominal GDP Vs Real GDP

Nominal GDP Vs Real GDP

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Nominal GDP Vs Real GDP

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  1. Nominal GDP Vs Real GDP Part II of Unit 3—measuring domestic output

  2. GDP • Reminder: GDP is a figure including every item produced in the economy. • Money is the common denominator that allows us to add the total output.

  3. Nominal GDP (GDPn) • Is the market value of all final g & s produced in a year. • Calculated using current prices when the output was produced • Includes inflation • It is hard to compare market values from year to year when the value of the $ itself changes (inflation or deflation) • To measure changes in the quantity of output, we need a “yardstick” that stays the same size.

  4. Real GDP (GDPr) • The value of the final g & s produced in a given year expressed in the prices of a base year • 2000 Nominal Vs Real

  5. Traditional Method of Calculating Real GDP • This economy produces apples & oranges • The base year is 2000. Since 2000 is the base year, real and nominal GDP are the same.

  6. To find the real GDP in 2000, + the value of apples & oranges produced in 2000 using the table: Value of apples = 60 apples X $.50 = $30 Value of oranges = 80 oranges X $.25 = $20 • Real GDP in 2000 = $30 + $20 = $50

  7. To calculate real GDP in 2006, + the value of apples and oranges using the prices of 2000 • Value of apples = 160 apples X $.50 = $80 • Value of oranges = 220 oranges X $.25 = $55 • Real GDP in 2006 = $80 + $55 = $135 • Real GDP is “constant dollars” or “2000 dollars” measure

  8. 2 purposes of estimating GDPr • To compare the standard of living over time (based on quantity, not price) • To compare the standard of living among countries

  9. Price Index • A measure of the price of a specified collection of g & s (market basket) in a given year as compared to the price of an identical collection of g & s in a reference year. • PI = price of market basket for a specific year X 100 price of same market basket in the base year • Find Real GDP = Nominal GDP X 100 PI

  10. GDP Deflator • An average of current prices expressed as a percentage of base year prices. • Measures the price level • The average level of prices • GDP deflator = (GDPn / GDPr) X 100 • ($135 / $50) X 100 = GDP deflator • 2.7 X100 = 270 If NGDP rises but RGDP remains unchanged, prices have risen.

  11. Real GDP and the Price Level • Deflating the GDP Balloon • GDPn increases because of production, GDPr will increases.

  12. Real GDP and the Price Level • Deflating the GDP Balloon • Nominal GDP also increases because prices rise.

  13. Real GDP and the Price Level • Deflating the GDP Balloon • We use the GDP deflator to let the air out of the GDPn balloon and reveal GDPr.

  14. The Consumer Price Index(CPI) • Index the gov’t uses to measure inflation • Gov’t uses it to adjust SS benefits and income tax brackets • Reports 300 items in a market basket

  15. Inflation • A rise in the general level of prices • Inflation rate = current CPI-Index CPI = rate (X 100)= % index CPI or Year2 – Year1 = rate (X 100) = % Year1