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CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS

CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS

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CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS

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  1. CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS DENT 657

  2. ANALYSIS UTILIZING THE CEPHALOMETRIC TRACING 1) Describe the subject’s dento-facial morphology 2) Quantitative description of morphological deviations 3) Make diagnostic and treatment planing decisions 2) Evaluate change over time - treatment induced and growth process

  3. Morphological Description • Skeletal - horizontal and vertical • Dental - horizontal and vertical • Comparing individual subject’s tracing to the “ideal” • Reference sample Cross-sectional Longitudinal - growth studies eg. Bolton-Brush, Ann Arbor and Burlington

  4. Cephalometric Analyses • Down’s • Steiner’s • Tweed’s • McNamara’s • OSU

  5. Cephalometric Evaluation • Identification of anatomic landmarks • Landmarks: stable reference structures and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental • Graphically relating the dento-facial elements to these reference structures • Angular and or linear measurements

  6. METHODS OF CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS • Two basic approaches • Metric approach - use of selected linear and angular measures • Graphic approach - “overlay” of individual’s tracing on a reference template and visual inspection of degree of variation

  7. Metric Method - Use of selected linear and angular measures

  8. Graphic Method - Use of a Composite Template

  9. GOALS OF CEPHALOMETRIC ANLYSIS • Evaluating relationships, both horizontal and vertical of 5 major functional components of the face: • the cranial base; • the maxilla; the mandible, • the maxillary and mandibular dento-alveolus

  10. REFERENCE LINES • Frankfort’s Horizontal (porion to orbitale) • Sella - Nasion line • True horizontal plane • True vertical plane

  11. Reference Lines nasion sella porion orbitale

  12. SNA 82 ± 2 deg NA TO FH 90 ± 3 deg SKELETAL HORIZONTAL - MAXILLA n s F H a

  13. SNB 80 ± 2 deg N-PG TO FH 88 ± 6 deg SKELETAL HORIZONTAL - MANDIBLE n s F H b P g

  14. ANB 2 ± 2 deg SKELETAL HORIZONTAL - MAXILLA TO MANDIBLE N A B

  15. FH TO GOGN 22 ± 5 deg Y AXIS 59 ± 6 deg LFH 55% OF TFH SKELETAL VERTICAL S F H G O G N M E

  16. INTERINCISAL 130 ± 5 deg DENTAL - UPPER TO LOWER INCISOR

  17. U1 TO FH 110 ± 5 deg U1 TO NA 22deg U1 TO NA 4mm DENTAL - MAXILLARY INCISOR N F H A

  18. L1 TO NB 25deg L1 TO NB 4mm L1 TO GOGN 91 ± 6deg DENTAL - MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR N GO B GN

  19. NASOLABIAL ANGLE 102 ± 8 deg L.LIP TO E PLANE -2 ±2mm SOFT TISSUE

  20. Limitations of the Metric Method • Stable reference structures are only relatively stable • Validity of landmarks • Error in landmark identification

  21. Graphic Method • Template • Changes between 2 time points

  22. Superimposition Method - on the cranial base

  23. Maxillary and mandibular superimposition

  24. Limitations of Cephalometric Analysis • Individual variability • Ethnic variability • Gender variability