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Classification of Component s and Approaches of Ad hoc Routing Protocols

Classification of Component s and Approaches of Ad hoc Routing Protocols

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Classification of Component s and Approaches of Ad hoc Routing Protocols

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  1. Classification of Components and Approaches of Ad hoc Routing Protocols Myung Lee & Tarek Saadawi CCNY October 22nd, 2004

  2. Component-Based Routing • Core components • Components possessed by most routing protocols. • Auxiliary components • Additional components that are not essential to all routing protocols CCNY

  3. Core Components • Route discovery • Route selection • Route formation /representation • Data forwarding • Route maintenance • Routing metrics CCNY

  4. Auxiliary Components • Neighbor discovery and maintenance • Hierarchical structure • Multicast • Security CCNY

  5. Core Components CCNY

  6. (1) Route Discovery • Finding potential route(s) to a destination • Reactive • Proactive • Hybrid CCNY

  7. Route Discovery (cont.) • Reactive • Full-flooding RREQ (AODV) • Limited-Flooding RREQ (LAR) • Position based • Direction based • Region based • Expanding ring • A priori knowledge • Efficient broadcast • Probabilistic RREQ (ANT, GPS Any-like) • Hybrid CCNY

  8. Route Discovery (cont.) • Proactive • Broadcastingcost-to-all to neighbors (DSDV) • Update message (cost-to-all) stops at neighbors, each node periodically updates its neighbors • Broadcastingcost-to-neighbor to all (LSR) • Update message (cost-to-neighbor) floods to the network CCNY

  9. Route Discovery (cont.) • Proactive (cont.) • Broadcastingcost-to-neighbor to neighbors • Update message (cost-to-neighbor) stops at neighbors, each node periodically (constant period) updates its neighbors (GSR, TRR) • Update message (cost-to-neighbor) stops at neighbors, each node periodically (different period based on distance to update originator) updates its neighbors (FSR, DREAM) • Unicast cost-to-all to a neighbor • Update message (cost-to-all) stops at a neighbor, each neighbor periodically updates one of its neighbors (Angle SINR Table Routing) CCNY

  10. Route Discovery (cont.) • Hybrid: Examples • Proactive for intra-cluster, reactive for inter-cluster (ZRP) • Proactive for virtual backbone, reactive for end-devices (TTDD) • Distance vector for neighborhood, self-routing for distant nodes (Terminode routing) CCNY

  11. (2) Route Selection • Selecting the best route(s) to a destination from the potential routes. • Reactive • Proactive • Hybrid CCNY

  12. Route Selection (cont.) • Reactive • Sourcebehavior • Select one or more routes from multiple RREPs (AODV, AOMDV) • Select the first arrived RREP and discard later RREPs (AODVjr) • Accept all RREPs (AOMDV) • Destination behavior • Select from multiple RREQs and reply with one/more RREP(s) (AODV) • Select from multiple RREQs and reply with one RREP (delayed RREP) (LBR) • Reply to all RREQs (AODVM: all; AOMDV: up to k RREPs) CCNY

  13. Route Selection (cont.) • Reactive (cont.) • Intermediate node behavior • Creating one or multiple routing entries based on RREQ filtering metric • RREQ filtering • Filtering duplicated RREQs (AODV) • Relaying RREQs without filtering • Filtering RREQs based on the interface the RREQ came from (SMR for link disjoint multipath) • Filtering RREQs based on cost (ABR) • Filtering RREQs based on whether they are in the forwarding zone (LAR, Region-based routing). • Filtering RREQs based on traffic flow conditions (LBR) CCNY

  14. Route Selection (cont.) • Proactive • Optimization based on distance vector (DSDV) • Optimization based on link state (OLSR, FSR, ZHLS) • Calculation based on tree topology (nerRFon) • Calculation based on position information (GPSR, GREEDY) • Hybrid (ZRP: Proactive for intra-cluster, reactive for inter-cluster) CCNY

  15. (3) Route Formation/ Representation • Means to store routing information. • Exact route • Route guidance CCNY

  16. Route Formation/Representation (cont.) • Exact route • Routing table (AODV) • Interest entry(DD) • Route in the packet (DSR) • Binary tree (tree routing) CCNY

  17. Route Formation/Representation (cont.) • Route guidance • Cost table (GRAd) • Geographical information • Exact positions (GPSR) • Pointer (TERMINODE) • Approximate region (ZHLS, LABAR) • Hierarchical structure information • Cluster headers (CBRP) • Cores (CEDAR) • Landmarks (LANMAR) CCNY

  18. (4) Route Maintenance • Proper update/ repair of routes to addressnetwork dynamics • Route refreshing • Failure handling • Route invalidation CCNY

  19. Route Maintenance (cont.) • Route refreshing • Reactive • Control packet (GPS Ant-like) • Data packet (AODV) • Automatic update when predefined or estimated route lifetime expires (LBR, LUNAR) • Hybrid (AODVjr) CCNY

  20. Route Maintenance (cont.) • Route refreshing (cont.) • Proactive • Distance vector update (DSDV) • Link state update (LSR) • Location information update (DREAM) • Hierarchical structure update (ZHLS) • Hybrid (ZRP: Proactive for intra-cluster, reactive for inter-cluster ) CCNY

  21. Route Maintenance (cont.) • Failure handling • Reactive • Rediscovery (AODV, DSR, DREAM) • Local repair (AODV, LAR) • Alternative path(multipath like TORA) • Route cache (DSR) • Data cache(CHAMP) • Proactive (handled by the route refreshing process) • Hybrid (GRA) CCNY

  22. (5) Data Forwarding • Means to forward data packets based on route information • Unicast • Data broadcast + neighbor filtering (GRAd) • Flooding CCNY

  23. Data Forwarding (cont.) • Unicast • Routing table • Deterministic • One route • Multiple routes * Simultaneously * Alternatively • Probabilistic CCNY

  24. Data Forwarding (cont.) • Unicast (cont.) • Self-routing (without routing table) • Tree routing • Location-based routing • Send to the neighbor in the transmission range that is closest to destination node (Greedy) • Send to the neighbor cluster that is closest to destination node (LABAR) • Hybrid of above approaches (Terminode, GRA) CCNY

  25. (6) Routing Metrics • Parameters used by routing algorithms to determine route optimality • Hop • Connectivity • Link QoS • Route QoS CCNY

  26. Routing Metrics (cont.) • Route QoS • E2E delay/Jitter • Reliability • Throughput • Security • Energy • Node lifetime • Network lifetime • Processing power (CPU, memory) • Etc. CCNY

  27. Auxiliary Components CCNY

  28. Auxiliary Components • Neighbor discovery and maintenance • Hierarchical structure • Multicast • Security CCNY

  29. (1) Neighbor Discovery and Maintenance • Dynamic maintenance of neighborhood information such as location, direction, ID, resources etc. • Synchronous approach • Asynchronous approach CCNY

  30. Neighbor Discovery and Maintenance(cont.) • Synchronous approach • Beacon/Hello • 1-hop neighbor information • 2-hop neighbor information (OLSR, GLS, TERMINODE) • Asynchronous approach • Control packet (LBR, AODV) • Data packet (AODV) CCNY

  31. (2) Hierarchical Structure • Organizing a group of network nodes into one or multiple level architecture. • Flat • Hierarchical • Homogeneous (proactive or reactive) • Heterogeneous (proactive and reactive) (ZRP) CCNY

  32. (3) Multicast • The transmission of a packet from a sender to a group of receivers • Tree based • Source tree • Shared tree • Mesh based • Broadcast • Multiple unicasts CCNY

  33. (4) Security • Means to achieve secure communication (confidentiality, integrity, freshness, and authentication) CCNY

  34. Next Step • Analyses of Approaches • Derivation of Dependency Graph of Approaches • Component Researches • Multipath • Route discovery • Efficient broadcasting CCNY

  35. CBR Reference List Papers reviewed: 90 By X. Hu, H. Juan, C. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Zheng, J. Yoon

  36. [ABR] C.-K. Toh, “Associativity-Based Routing For Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks”, Wireless Personal Communications Journal: Special Issue in Mobile Networking and Computing Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Vol. 4, No.2, March 1997, pp103-139. • [AODV] C. E. Perkins, E. M. Belding-Royer, and S. Das. “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing IETF Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-aodv-11.txt, June 2002. • [AODVjr] I. Chakeres and L. Klein-Berndt, AODVjr, AODV Simplified, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, July 2002. • [ARA] Mesut Günes et. al., ARA - the ant-colony based routing algorithm for manets, In Stephan Olariu, editor, Proceedings of the 2002 ICPP Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks (IWAHN 2002), pages 79-85, IEEE Computer Society Press, August 2002, • [BSR] SONG GUO, OLIVER W. YANG Performance of Backup Source Routing (BSR) in mobile ad hoc networks p 440-444, Proc. 2002 IEEE Wireless Networking Conference CCNY

  37. [CGSR] C. -C. Chiang and M. Gerla, “Routing and Multicast in Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE ICUPC ’97, San Diego, CA, Oct. 1997. • [DBF] SHREE MURTHY, J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-AVECES Distributed Bellman-Ford routing protocol (DBF), A Routing Protocol for Packet Radio Networks, Proc. ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 86-95, November, 1995. • [DD] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan and D. Estrin, Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks”, ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM'00), 2000. • [DSDV] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’94, London, U.K., Sept. 1994, pp. 234-244. • [DSR] D. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, and J. Broch, “The dynamic source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” IETF Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-09.txt, April 2003. CCNY

  38. [DSRFLOW] YIH-CHUN HU, DAVID B. JOHNSON, DAVID A. MALTZ Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf- manet-dsrflow-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001 • [FORP] J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves,Flow Oriented Protocols for Scalable Wireless Networks, ACM MSWiM 2002 , Atlanta, Georgia • [FSLS] C. Santivanez, R. Ramanathan, and I. Stavrakakis, “Making Link-State Routing Scale for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 2001 ACM Int’l. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Net. Comp., Long Beach, CA, Oct. 2001. • [FSR] G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, “Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. ICC 2000, New Orleans, LA, June 2000. • [GRAd] R. Poor. “Gradient Routing in Ad Hoc Networks, http://www.media.mit.edu/pia/Research/ESP/texts/poorieeepaper.pdf CCNY

  39. [GSR] T.-W. Chen and M. Gerla, “Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hocWireless Networks,” In Proceedings of IEEE ICC’98, Atlanta, GA, Jun. 1998, pp. 171-175. • [HSR] G. Pei et al., “A Wireless Hierarchical Routing Protocol with Group Mobility,” Proc. IEEE WCNC ’99, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 1999. • [LBR] B. S. Manoj, R. Ananthapadmanabha, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "Link life Based Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Wireless Networks", Proc. of The 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications 2001 (IC3N 2001), October 2001. • [LCA] M. GERLA, J. T. TSAI Multicluster, Mobile, Multimedia Radio Network ACM Wireless Networks, VOl 1, No.3, 1995, pp. 255-265 • [LMR] M.S. CORSON AND A. EPHREMIDES Lightweight Mobile Routing protocol (LMR), A distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks, Wireless Networks 1 (1995). CCNY

  40. [LSR, OSPF] John T. Moy: OSPF: Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocol, 3rd printing, September 1998, ISBN 0-201-63472-4. • [LUNAR] C. Tschudin and R. Gold, “LUNAR: Lightweight underlay network adhoc routing,” University of Basel, Switzerland, Tech. Rep., January 2002. • [nerRFon] L. Hester, Y. Huang, A. Allen, O. Andric, P. Chen, “neuRFonTM Netform: A Self-Organizing Wireless Sensor Network,” Proceedings of the 11th IEEE ICCCN Conference, Miami, Florida, Oct. 2002. • [OLSR] P. Jacquet et al., “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol,” draft-ietf-manetolsr- 05.txt, Internet Draft, IETF MANET Working Group, Nov. 2000 • [PLBR] R. S. Sisodia, B. S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "A Preferred Link Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks", Journal of Communications and Networks, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 14-21, March 2002. CCNY

  41. [QL] R. Castenada, S. R. Das, and M. K. Marina, “Query localization techniques for on-demand routing protocols in ad hoc networks”, ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks (WINET) Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 2002, pages 137-151. • [RDMAR] Aggelou G, Tafazolli R.    RDMAR: A Bandwidth-efficient Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.   In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom99/WoWMoM99 , Washington, USA, August 1999 • [REGR] X. Hu, Y. Liu, M. J. Lee, T. N. Saadawi, “A Region-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Network, July/August, 2004, Page12-17. • [SSR] R. Dube et al., "Signal Stability based adaptive routing for Ad Hoc Mobile networks", IEEE Pers. Comm., Feb. 1997, pp. 36-45. • [STAR] J.J. GARCIA-LUNA, M. SPOHN Source Tree Adaptive Routing Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-star-00.txt, work in progress, October 1999. CCNY

  42. [TBRPF ] R. G. Ogier et al., “Topology Broadcast based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF),” draft-ietf-manet-tbrpf-05.txt, INTERNET-DRAFT, MANET WorkingGroup, Mar. 2002. • [TORA] VD Park and MS Corson "A highly adaptive distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks", Proc. INFOCOM'97, Apr. 1997, 9 pages. • [TTDD] F. Ye, H. Luo, J. Cheng, S. Lu and L. Zhang, “A Two-tier Data Dissemination Model for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks”, ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM'02), 2002. • [WRP] S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks", ACM Mobile Networks and App. J., Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, Oct. 1996, pp. 183-97. CCNY

  43. [AODVM: multipath] Zhenqiang Ye, Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy, Satish K. Tripathi, A Framework for Reliable Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, INFOCOM2003, San Francisco, CA, 2003 • [EDSR : multipath] J. Wu, An Extended Dynamic Source Routing Scheme in Ad HocWireless Networks Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2002, Hawaii, 2002. • [GMR : multipath] G. Koh, D. Oh1 and H. Woo, A Graph-based Approach to Compute Multiple Paths in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. • [MMRP : multipath] S. De, C. Qiao H. Wu, Meshed multipath routing with selective forwarding: an efficient strategy in wireless sensor networks, Computer Networks 43 (2003) p481–p497 CCNY

  44. [Broadcast 1] M. Sun, W. Feng and T.H. Lai, "Location aided broadcast in wireless ad hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 2001, pp. 2842-2846, San Antonio, TX, November 2001. • [Broadcast 2] Y.-C. Tseng, S.-Y. Ni, Y.-S. Chen, and J.-P. Sheu, "The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network,” ACM Wireless Networks, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 153-167. • [Broadcast 3] A. Qayyum, L. Viennot, and A. Laouiti. “Multipoint Relaying: An Efficient Technique for Flooding in Mobile Wireless Networks,” INRIA res. rep. RR- 3898, 2000 CCNY

  45. [GPS Ant-like] Daniel Camara and Antonio Alfredo F. Loureiro, “A Novel Routing Algorithm for Ad Hoc Networks”, Baltzer Journal of Telecommunications Systems, 18:1-3,85-100 Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001 • [LAR] Y. Ko and N.H. Vaidya, “Location-aided Routing (LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom’98), pp.66-75 • [DREAM] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V.R. Syrotjuk and B.A. Woodward, “A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM)”, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom’98), pp.76-84 • [DREAM vs. LAR] Tracy Camp and Jeff Boleng, “Performance Comparison of Two Location Based Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Infocom 2002, Dept. of Math and Computer Science Colorado School of Mines CCNY

  46. [ZHLS] Mario Joa-Ng and I-Tai Lu, “A Peer-to-peer Zone-Based Two-level Link State Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Vol.17, NO.8, August 1999 • [LABAR] Gergely V. Zaruba and Vamsi K. Chaluvadi “LABAR: Location Area Based Ad Hoc Routing for GPS-scarce Wide-area AD Hoc Networks” Proceedings of the first IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom’03), Dept/ of Computer Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington • [GPSR] Brad Karp and H.T. Kung “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks” Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom 2000), Harvard University • [GRA] Rahul Jain and Anuj Puri “GRA: Geographical Routing Using Partial Information for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE Personal Communications, February 2001, pp.48-57 University of California, Berkeley CCNY

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  48. [Quorum] Zygmunt J. Hass and Ben Liang “Ad Hoc Mobility Management with Uniform Quorum Systems”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, April 1999, pp.1-13 The School of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University • [VHR] S. Giordano and M.Hamdi “Mobility Management: The Virtual Home Region”, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (FPFL), Switzerland http://icwww.epfl.ch/publications/ documents/IC_TECH_REPORT_199937.pdf • [Survery 1] Ivan Stojmenovic “Position-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE Communications Magazine, July 2002, pp.128-134 • [Survey 2] Martin Mauve and Jorg Widmer “A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE Networks, November/ December 2001, pp.30-39 CCNY

  49. [Survey 3] Dragos Niculescu “Positioning in Ad Hoc Sensor Networks” IEEE Network, July/August 2004 • [Survey 4] Elizabeth M. Royer and Chai-Keong Toh “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks” IEEE Personal Communications, April 1999 CCNY

  50. [Infra-structure AODV] Anders Lindgren, Olov Schelen, Infra-Structure Aodv for Infrastructured Ad Hoc networks, In Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (International Workshop on Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN 2002)). pages 64-70. August 2002. • [PARO] J. Gomez, A. T. Campbell, M. Naghshineh, C. Bisdikian, T.J. Watson Power-Aware Routing Optimization Protocol (PARO) Internet Draft, draft-gomez-paro-manet-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001 • [PAMAS] S. Singh, C. S. Raghavendra, "PAMAS-Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol with Signalling for Ad Hoc Networks", Computer Communication Review, July 1998. • [Geography-Informed Energy Conservation] Ya Xu, John Heidemann, and Deborah Estrin. Geography-informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing. In Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom), pages 70--84, Rome, Italy, July 2001. ACM. CCNY