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Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

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Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

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  1. Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

  2. Unicellular • A single cell performs all the basic life process. • Example: Amoeba sp., Paramecium sp

  3. Multicellular • An organism consists of more than one cell. • Each group of cell specialized to carry our life processes. • Example: Homo sapien (human), animals and plants.

  4. Multicellular • It has five levels of organisation • Cells • Tissues. • Organs. • System. • Organisms

  5. Cells • basic units of structure and function. • Example: Red blood cells and mesophyll palisade cells

  6. Tissues • made up of cells with similar in structure and function. • Example: Muscle tissues and vascular tissues

  7. Organs • made up of tissues that perform a specific function. • Example: Heart and flower.

  8. System • two of more organs that perform a specific function. • Example: Digestive system and root system

  9. Organisms • wholeliving thing that carry out all the basic life processes. • Example: Human and durian tree

  10. Cell Organisation in Amoeba sp. and Paramecium sp

  11. Cell structure • Amoeba sp.: plasma membrane, food vacuole, contractile vacuole, pseudopodium, nucleus, ectoplasma, endoplasm. • Paramecium sp.: food vacuole, contractile vacuoles, gullet, oral groove, cilia, macronucleus, micronucleus,

  12. Locomotion • Amoeba sp. Pseudopodium(false foot) helps it to move forward slowly and it is known as amoeboid movement. • Paramecium sp.: Hair-like cilia to beat against water.

  13. Feeding of Amoeba sp Omnivore. Eat bacteria, plant cells, algae and other microscopic organisms. • Entrapment – extend pseudopodium. • Engulfment – engulf tiny food (phagocytosis) with its pseudopodia. • Digestion – food enclosed in food vacuole • Absorption – enzyme digests the bacteria • Egesting – expel indigestible material.

  14. Feeding of Paramecium sp Eats bacteria, organic material and other microscopic organisms. • Sweeping – movement of cilia. Food moves along the oral groove into the gullet. • Digestion – food vacuole circulates round the cell. • Elimination – undigested food is eliminated at the anal pore

  15. Reproduction of Amoeba sp two types of reproduction. • Binary Fission – nucleus divides (favourable condition) and then follows by division of cytoplasm. Two daughter cells are formed (mitotic division). • Spore Formation – spores form (bad condition) and germinate into new amoeba under favourable condition

  16. Reproduction of Paramecium sp • two types of reproduction. • Binary Fission – micronucleus undergoes mitosis (favourable condition). Macronucleus begins to elongation and form two. Cell content divide and two daughter cells are formed. • Conjugation– two same species parent paramecia exchange genetic material of their micronuclei. Each parent divides and forms four daughter cells.

  17. Osmoregulation • Amoeba sp. water moves into the cell by osmosis and prevention of bursting, it has a contractile vacuole • Paramecium sp. water moves into the cell by osmosis and prevention of bursting, it has two contractile vacuoles

  18. Respiration Amoeba sp. and Paramecium sp. (both): exchange gases throughout the whole cell membrane through diffusion

  19. ExcretionAmoeba sp. and Paramecium sp. (both): waste products are ammonia and carbon dioxide by diffusion. Solid waste in paramecium is expelled through its anal pore.

  20. Cell Organisation (Multicellular) in Human • Cells: Epithelial cells, muscle cells, white blood cells, red blood cells, sperm, nerve cells. • Tissues: Epithelial tissue, smooth muscle tissue, connective tissue, skeletal tissue, nerve tissue. • Organs: Stomach, heart, kidney, lung, liver. • Systems: Circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system,. • Organisms: Human.

  21. Cell Organisation in Plant • Cells: Parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells, epidermal cells. • Tissues: Epidermal tissue, meristem tissue, vascular tissue. • Organs: Leaf organ, flower organ, stem organ, root organ • Systems: Shoot system, root system. • Organisms: Plant

  22. The End