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  2. Traditional Approaches to Teaching Writing Assigned topic One-shot Skills as writing

  3. Stage I Prewriting Stage II Writing Stage III Postwriting Process Writing Model

  4. Stage I Prewriting Getting ready, observing, free reading, drawing, storytelling, collection, writing folders, freewriting Process Writing Model: Stage I

  5. Stage II Writing Rough draft, conference, revising, editing Process Writing Model: Stage II

  6. Stage III Postwriting Author’s chair, bookbinding, publishing, Young Author’s Fair Process Writing Model: Stage III

  7. Generic Example: Texas Independence • Main Idea • 1. Supporting detail 2. Supporting detail • II.Main Idea • 1. Supporting detail 2. Supporting detail • Main Idea • 1. Supporting detail 2. Supporting detail • Political Issues • 1. Expansion of slavery 2. Independence from Mexico • II. Economic Issues • 1. Trade with United States 2. Expansion of cotton into Texas • Two major battles • 1. The Alamo 2. San Jacinto Outline Format

  8. Sample Second-Grade Web: Animals

  9. Sample Cluster Diagram: Monsters

  10. Mini-Lesson: Tips for Writing Rough Drafts • Write on one side of the page only; use back for taking notes • Skip lines & leave wide margins • Cross out rather than erase • Date & number drafts; keep a record of progress

  11. Suggestions for Peer-to-Peer Conferences • Bring question list and refer to it. • Read draft orally to partner. • No proofreading of mechanical errors at these sessions. • Rotate conferencing partners. • Ask questions rather than give suggestions. • Have option of conferencing only with teacher.

  12. Redo the opening WORD Find just the right term SENTENCE Redo the wording PARAGRAPH Cut and paste Add more details Redo the ending Substitute dialogue for narrative Steps in Revision

  13. Some Proofreading Marks

  14. RESPONSE CHOICE Teachers listen to children; peer responding; conferencing on a regular basis. Children choose their topics, genres, materials, how to use their time; make choices about drafting, revising, editing, etc. TIME Writers need large blocks of uninterrupted time during the school day. MINI-LESSONS STRUCTURE Teacher demonstrates and explains in a brief lesson needed skills, concepts, and procedural matters to facilitate workshop independence. COMMUNITY Establish a definite workshop routine: Status of the class, Mini-lesson, Time to write, Conferencing, Group sharing. Students share their knowledge and skills with others; collaborative writing; buddy teams for editing; cooperative group research and writing; author’s chair. Writing Workshop Elements (based on Hansen, Atwell, Graves)

  15. Example Structure of a Writer’s Workshop • Status of the class report • Mini-lesson • Writing time • Conferencing • Group sharing • Movement procedures

  16. Did I . . . use complete sentences? capitalize the first word in each sentence? end statements with periods? end question sentences with question marks? indent paragraphs? check for spelling errors? capitalize all proper nouns? use quotation marks to indicate dialogue? Check if Yes Editing Checklist

  17. Types of Writing • Descriptive • Expressive • Narrative • Expository • Persuasive

  18. Writing Activities • Journals (diaries, dialogue, literary response, reading logs, writer’s journals, learning logs, simulated journals) • Stories • Plays • Nonfiction (autobiographies, biography, and research reports) • Letters • Poetry

  19. Journal Writing Tips • Collect and read journals, but do not grade • Allow for misspellings and grammatical errors • Have students keep journals daily • Encourage rereading of entries and use as source for writing ideas • Keep a journal yourself and write with the students in class

  20. Mini-Lessons for Teaching Story Components Beginning, middle, and end Plot (conflict, climax, & resolution) Setting (place & time) Character development Theme (message) Role of narrator

  21. Four-Step Model for Encouraging Nonfiction Writing • Demonstration—teacher modeling the steps of researching and writing • Joint activity—group of students collaborating on a single piece • Supported writing—teacher provides guiding questions or an outline • Independent writing—students research and write on their own

  22. Approaches to Teaching Research Writing • All About . . . • I-Search paper • Quest project

  23. Exposure • Sharing • Memorizing • Choral speaking • Copywriting • Illustrating 7.Writingpoetry A. Free verse B. Acrostic C. Couplet D. Diamante E. Haiku F. Concrete (or visual) Stages in a Poetry Unit

  24. Guidelines for Teaching Poetry Not all poetry has to rhyme Show examples of different poetry forms Be flexible when teaching a fixed form (e.g., haiku) Begin by writing a group poem Write while your students are writing

  25. Methods for Assessing Writing Teacher–pupil conferences Teacher observations Anecdotal records Student journals Student self-evaluation Portfolios

  26. Portfolio Form for Student’s Self-Assessment Self-Assessment Form Name Date Name of work 1. I got my idea from 2. I got the background information from 3. The part that was hard to write was because 4. I especially liked this part because 5. I could improve it by 6. New vocabulary words I used Teacher’s Comments

  27. Possible Questions for Quarterly Teacher–Student Evaluation • What was your favorite piece of work this quarter? Explain why. • What piece did you like the least? Explain why. • Did you make good use of your time? Explain. • What things did you learn about yourself as you were writing? • Which type of new genre will you attempt next quarter? Why do you want to try it? • What one thing would you like most to learn next quarter?

  28. Teacher’s Portfolio Assessment Rubric Excellent Poor GOALS 5 4 3 2 1 Writing Process use various prewriting strategies (brainstorming, webbing, illustrating, etc.) writes a rough draft (ability to put thoughts on paper) revises rough draft (checks details, sequence, clarity, etc.) edits/proofreads (alone, with peers, or with teacher) Writing Skills writes complete sentences uses descriptive words in writing uses correct format when writing paragraphs uses correct format when writing letters

  29. Excellent Poor GOALS 5 4 3 2 1 Usage makes subjects and verbs agree Mechanics punctuates at the end of sentences capitalizes the beginning of sentences uses commas correctly uses quotation marks correctly capitalizes proper nouns in writing Teacher Comments Teacher’s Portfolio Assessment Rubric (continued)

  30. Six Traits of Writing • Development of ideas and content • Organizational structure • Voice • Word choice • Sentence fluency • Conventions Website: