Adv Biology 1-2 Cell Structure and Organelles
Cell Types • There are two types of cells. • Prokaryote-cell lacking a nucleus and organelles. • DNA is free floating. • Reactions occur throughout the cell. • Bacteria.
Cell Types cont’d • Eukaryote-cell containing a nucleus and organelles. • Organelle-membrane bound structure in a eukaryotic cell. • Each has a specific function. • Reactions occur in organelles. • Increases the surface area for reactions to occur. • 2 types of eukaryotic cells: • Plant animal cells
Inside the Cell • Inside of all cells is a jelly-like fluid called the cytosol. • Mostly water. • Also contains ions, proteins, lipids and other dissolved molecules. • Cytoplasm-everything inside of the cell. • Includes the cytosol and organelles. • Does not include the nucleus.
Organelles • Nucleus-contains DNA. • Contains most of the genes that control the cell. • Nuclear envelope- membrane surrounding the nucleus. • Nucleolus-organelle inside of the nucleus; makes ribosomes.
Organelles cont’d • Ribosome-makes proteins. • Endoplasmic reticulum(ER)-a series of membranes running throughout the cell. • Rough ER-makes proteins and new membranes. • Has ribosomes on it. • Smooth ER-makes lipids and steroids, breaks down carbohydrates and toxins.
Organelles cont’d • Golgi apparatus-a series of membranes, takes the products of the ER, packages and ships them throughout the cell.
Organelles cont’d • Vesicle-membrane sac for storing and transporting molecules. • Vacuole-membrane sac for storing food and water. • Stores water and food before digesting it.
Organelles cont’d • Lysosome-membrane sac containing enzymes for breaking down organic compounds. • Peroxisome-membrane sac, breaks down fats and toxins. • Produces hydrogen peroxide.
Organelles cont’d • Mitochondrion-makes ATP for the cell. • ATP is used to provide energy for reactions to occur.
Organelles cont’d • Cytoskeleton-a series of protein tubules and filaments throughout the cell. • Provides shape and support to the cell.
Plant Cells • Plant cells have two unique structures. • Cell wall-rigid wall of cellulose (a polymer of glucose) surrounding a plant cell. • Provides shape and protection.
Plant Cells cont’d • Chloroplast-the site of photosynthesis. • Photosynthesis produces sugar for the plant.
Cell Organelles • A cell is like a city with structures that each serve a specific function. • The cell structures are called “organelles” (little organs) • Each organelle of a eukaryotic cell has a specific function.
Cell Organelle Jigsaw Analogies. • What is an analogy? • “A comparison between two things which are similar in some respects, but otherwise different. An explaining of something by comparing it point by point with something else.” • Plasma membrane • Cell wall • Nucleus • Ribosomes • Endoplasmic reticulum • Golgi Apparatus • Vacuoles • Lysosomes • Mitochondria • Chloroplasts • Cytoskeleton • Cytoplasm
For each organelle: • Summarize its function in 2 sentences • Draw it • Create an analogy The plasma membrane is like _________________________ because it ____________________________________________________________________ in the same way _____________________________________________________.
Cell City Project • Cells can be compared to many objects: cities, countries, states, even schools. • Your job will be to create and compare the parts of the cell to parts of a city (or any other reasonable thing) • Your final draft will consist of a drawing on a poster and a written final copy.
Endomembrane System • Warmup: How is the nucleus the “control center” of the cell?
Endomembrane System • Ribosomes: • Assemble proteins from raw materials. • 2 types of proteins: • Proteins inserted back into the ER to make more ER or other organelles • Secretory proteins; secreted by the cell
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • Makes lipids • Contains enzymes that perform many functions. • Stores calcium in muscle tissue for contraction.
Golgi Apparatus • Receives and modifies substances made in the ER. • One side serves a receiving dock. • One side serves as a shipping dock.
Cell city project: (2 parts) • Poster (25%) • Should have colored diagrams of parts of a city, school or what you are comparing the cell to. • Next to each structure label the structure and the organelle you are comparing it to. • Ex. City Hall/Nucleus • Written Report: (75%) • A typed or neatly written paper that fully describes and supports your analogies for all 12 cell parts in bullet form. • “The nucleus of a cell is like city hall because the nucleus contains the genetic information of the cell and gives instructions to the ribosomes to make proteins in the same way that city hall contains the law of a city provides instructions and directions to keep the city running well”
Extra Credit! • Due Tomorrow (Friday) beginning of class • One 3x5 index card per organelle • Front: • Name of organelle, neat colored drawing. • Back: • 2 sentences describing the structure. • 2 sentences describing the function.