Download
major hazards control n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL

MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL

162 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL Direktorat Pengawasan Norma K3 Kemenakertrans

  2. MAJOR HAZARD Danger of large accidents, with consequences not only on the plant site, but also in the surroundings : • Many dead or wounded • Heavy damage to buildings • Wide and unfavorable publicity: press, radio,TV • Emotional public reactions • Serious consequences for the company involved : • Production loss • Investigation • Insurance procedures • Additional safety requirements • Shutdown, perhaps : PERMANENT

  3. MAJOR ACCIDENT A major accident is defined in the regulation as : “A sudden occurrence at facility causing serious danger or harm to : - a relevant person or - an at risk community or - property or - the environment whether the danger or harm occurs immediately or at a later time”. (Australian Government – Comcare)

  4. HARMFUL EFFECT ARISING FROM MAJOR CHEMICAL HAZARDS • DEATHS – immediate and delayed • PHYSICAL INJURIES – disabling and non disabling • MENTAL INJURIES – short term or long term • SOCIAL TRAUMA – short term or long term • DISRUPTION OF PEOPLE’S WAY OF LIFE – short term or long term • ENVIRONMENT DAMAGE – short term or long term • FINANCIAL LOSS; property damage; consequential loss

  5. INCIDENT BHOPAL,INDIA (3/12/84) • Nature of occurrence : runaway reaction in storage tank released ca. 30 tons of MIC • Fatalities : Immediate : > 2000; delayed : ?? • Physical injuries : + 200.000; disabled : ?? • Mental injuries : extreme shock & panic, prolonged & extreme anxiety • Disruption of people’s way of live : ?? • Environmental damage : ?? • Financial loss : property damage £ 100 millions

  6. INCIDENT MEXICO CITY (19/11/84) • Nature of occurrence : 18 hours conflagration of ca.6000 tons of LPG • Fatalities : Immediate : > 500; delayed : ?? • Physical injuries : 7097; disabled : 100 • Mental injuries : severe shock & panic • Disruption of people’s way of live : 39.000 homeless or evacuated; hundreds of houses up to 300 meters destroyed • Environmental damage : ?? • Financial loss : property damage >£ 13 millions

  7. INCIDENT PIPER ALPHA OIL PLATFORM, NORTH SEA (6/7/88) • Nature of occurrence : explosion destroyed oil production platform • Fatalities : Immediate : 167; delayed : nil • Physical injuries : 20; disabled : 7 • Mental injuries : loss of public confidence; loss of morale in workforce • Disruption of people’s way of live : relief fund £ millions • Environmental damage : 5 km oil slick formed • Financial loss : property damage +£ 500 millions

  8. SPECIFIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO MAJOR ACCIDENT (1) • Poor management practices; e.g : inadequate supervision • Pressure to meet production target • Inadequate Safety Management System • Failure to learn lessons from previous accident • Communication issues; e.g : between shifts, between personnel and management • Inadequate reporting system • Complacency • Violation / non compliance behavior

  9. SPECIFIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO MAJOR ACCIDENT (2) • Inadequate training, e.g : emergency response, fire and safety • Lack of competency • Excessive working hours resulting in mental fatigue • Inadequate procedures • Modification /up date to equipment without operator knowledge and/ or revised risk assessment • Inadequate /insufficient maintenance • Maintenance error

  10. MAJOR HAZARD CONTROL is Prevention of Major Accidents

  11. Factors Influencing Major Incidents

  12. MAJOR ACCIDENTS OCCUR ALWAYS UNEXPECTED • At night • During the weekend • When the factory is stopped • During a power failure • In very bad weather

  13. CONTROL MEASURES • Avoidance of Risks • Prevention of Accidents • Mitigation of Consequences • Operation • Maintenance • Repair • Modification • Decommissioning • Sitting of the plant • Lay out • Design • Construction • Start up

  14. AVOIDANCE OF RISKS • Small Inventories • Safer Substances • Lower Pressure • Lower Temperature • Etc REDUCE POTENTIAL

  15. PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS • Ensure adequate control • instrumentation • Reduce Failures • Improve Detection • Improve Shutdown • Improve Relief • Site Layout • Operator training • Operation Maintenance • Work permit system • Inspection, testing • Accident - investigation • Etc REDUCE PROBABILITY

  16. MITIGATION OF CONSEQUENCES • Detection systems • Emergency action on site • Choice of site • Firefighting system • First aid kit • Personal service/ambulance • Control development nearby • Etc REDUCE IMPACT

  17. ACCIDENT MODEL HUMAN FAILURE Unsafe acts INCIDENT Latent Errors Unsafe Plant/ Condition PERFORMANCE INFLUENCING FACTORS Fail to recover situation ORGANISATION PERSON JOB ACCIDENT Failure of mitigation

  18. ACCIDENT MODEL • PERSON : • aptitude • sifat • sistem nilai • kharakteristik • minat • motivasi • usia • jenis kelamin • pendidikan • pengalaman dll ORGANISATION PERSON JOB • ORGANISATION : • kharakteristik perusahaan • sistem manajemen • diklat • pengawasan/supervisi • pengupahan • lingkungan sosial • dll • JOB : • mesin • peralatan kerja • bahan • lingkungan fisik • metode kerja • dll

  19. HUMAN FACTOR • The JOB – what people are ask to do(task/workload/procedures/environment/equipment) • The INDIVUAL – who is doing it(competence/attitude/capability/risk perception) • ORGANIZATION – how is the work organized(leadership/resources/culture/communication) INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION HUMAN FACTOR (Health & Safety Executive -1999) JOB

  20. EXAMPLES OF MAJOR HAZARD WORKS • Petrochemical Works • Chemical Works • LPG Storage • Fertilizer Works • Explosives Manufacture • Bulk Use of Chlorine • Pesticide factories • Etc

  21. CONTOHINDUSTRIAL MAJOR ACCIDENT • PELEDAKAN (Explosions) • Cyxlohexane (Mati : 28; Cidera : 89) Flixborough –UK, 1974 • Propylene (Mati : 14; Cidera :107) Beek, Netherland, 1975 • KEBAKARAN (Major Fires) • LPG (Mati : 650; Cidera : 2500) Mexico City, 1985 • TOKSIK (Toxic Release) • Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) (Mati :2000;Cidera :20000 Bhopal, India, 1984

  22. MAJOR ACCIDENT • BHOPAL – absence of system maintenance • PIPER ALPHA – an error in work organization and transmission of instruction • CHERNOBYL – breach of safety regulation • FLIXBOROUGH – a poorly designated modification

  23. DESIGNATION OF MAJOR HAZARD PLANT • List of Substances considered to be dangerous • Threshold Quantities for each of substances on the list

  24. PENETAPAN POTENSI BAHAYA INSTALASI • POTENSI BAHAYA BESAR : Kuantitas Bahan yang Digunakan melebihi Nilai Ambang Kuantitas (NAK) Qs > TQ • POTENSI BAHAYA MENENGAH :Kuantitas Bahan yang Digunakan sama atau lebih kecil Nilai Ambang Kuantitas (NAK) Qs = TQ atau Qs < TQ

  25. KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUSPersh. Potensi Bahaya Besar (I) • Mempekerjakan Petugas K3 Kimia : • Sistem Kerja Non Shift min. 2 orang • Sistem Kerja Shift min. 5 orang • Mempekerjakan Ahli K3 Kimia min. 1 orang • Membuat Dokumen Pengendalian Potensi Bahaya Besar • Melaporkan Setiap Perubahan (bahan, kuantitas, proses dan modifikasi instalasi)

  26. KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUSPersh. Potensi Bahaya Besar (II) • Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Faktor Kimia min. 6 bulan sekali • Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Instalasi min. 2 tahun sekali • Melakukan Pemeriksaan Kesehatan Tenaga Kerja min. 1 tahun sekali

  27. KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUSPersh. Potensi Bahaya Menengah (I) • Mempekerjakan Petugas K3 Kimia : • Sistem Kerja Non Shift min. 1 orang • Sistem Kerja Shift min. 3 orang • Membuat Dokumen Pengendalian Potensi Bahaya Menengah • Melaporkan Setiap Perubahan (bahan, kuantitas, proses dan modifikasi instalasi)

  28. KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUSPersh. Potensi Bahaya Menengah (II) • Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Faktor Kimia min. 1 tahun sekali • Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Instalasi min. 3 tahun sekali • Melakukan Pemeriksaan Kesehatan Tenaga Kerja min. 1 tahun sekali

  29. DOKUMEN PENGENDALIAN POTENSI BAHAYA BESARBerisikan : • Identifikasi Bahaya, Penilaian dan Pengendalian Risiko • Kegiatan Tehnis, Rancang Bangun, Konstruksi, Pemilihan Bahan Kimia, Pengoperasian dan Pemeliharaan Instalasi • Kegiatan Pembinaan Tenaga Kerja • Rencana dan Prosedur Penanggulangan Keadaan Darurat • Prosedur Kerja Aman

  30. DOKUMEN PENGENDALIAN POTENSI BAHAYA MENENGAHBerisikan : • Identifikasi Bahaya, Penilaian dan Pengendalian Risiko • Kegiatan Tehnis, Rancang Bangun, Konstruksi, Pemilihan Bahan Kimia, Pengoperasian dan Pemeliharaan Instalasi • Kegiatan Pembinaan Tenaga Kerja • Prosedur Kerja Aman

  31. Faktor2 yg dipertimbangkan dlm memilih lokasi MH Instalasi : • Proximity to populated areas; • Proximity to public ways; • Risk from adjacent facilities; • Storage quantities; • Present and predicted development of adjacent properties; • Topography of the site, including elevation and slope;

  32. Faktor2 yg dipertimbangkan dlm memilih lokasi MH Instalasi : • Access for emergency response; • Availability of needed utility; • Requirement for the receipt and shipment of products; • Local codes and regulation; • Prevailing wind condition;

  33. IDENTIFICATION AND PRIOTISATION OF MAJOR HAZARD CONTROL • Factories • Installation • Plant Unit

  34. PRIORITISATION OF MAJOR HAZARDFACTORIES IDENTIFIED FACTORY RANKING FACTOR (FRF) : Consist of 5 rating factors : • Hazard Rating (HR) • Capacity Rating (CR) • Population Rating (PR) • Domino Effect Rating (DER) • Special Object Rating (SOR) FRF = HR + CR +PR + DER + SOR

  35. HAZARD RATING (HR) • The chemical & physical properties • The hazardous substances

  36. CAPACITY RATING (CR) • Max. quantity • Threshold quantity CR = Max. Capacity ILO Threshold Quantity

  37. POPULATION RATING (PR) • Population in within a circle of 1 km

  38. DOMINO EFFECT RATING (DER) • Major Hazard Installation

  39. SPECIAL OBJECTS RATING (SOR) • Object such as : schools, hospitals, cinemas, markets, supermarkets etc • Within a circle of 1 km

  40. FACTORY RANKING FACTOR (FRF)

  41. CONTOH 1 PT. X Jakarta, Informasi : LPG : 37.000 tons Penduduk lebih dari 10.000 orang, tidak terdapat MH instalasi lainnya dan tidak ada spesial objek Jawaban : HR = 20; CR = 37.000 : 25 = 1480 => CR > 100, CRp = 16; PR = 9; DER = 0 dan SOR = 0 Jadi FRF = 20+16+9+0+0 = 45 (Category III)

  42. CONTOH 2 PT. X Cikampek, Informasi : Chlorine : 113 tons Penduduk lebih dari 1000 orang, tidak terdapat MH instalasi lainnya dan spesial objek sekolah dan rumah sakit Jawaban : HR = 25; CR = 113 : 10 = 11 => CRp = 8; PR = 6; DER = 0 dan SOR = 2 Jadi FRF = 25+8+6+0+2 = 41 (Category II)

  43. IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITISATION OF MAJOR HAZARD INSTALATION Calculation of Designation Factor (DF) of a Major Hazard Installation : DF = Q x CF/DQ DF = Designation Factor of Major Hazard Installation. Q = Max. Quantity of Major Hazard Substance in kg CF = Condition Factor DQ = Designation Quantity of Major Hazard Substance in kg

  44. CONDTIONS FACTOR (CF) • A measure for the conditions under which a Major Hazard Substances is present in the installation • Condition deviations and corrections

  45. CONDITIONS FACTOR (CF) CF = a x b x (c + d)

  46. DESIGNATION QUANTITY (DQ) • Quantity of hazardous substance when released suddenly, can result in extreme danger for a worker within a radius of 100 m from the point of emission • The designation Quantity : • Flammable Substances :10.000 kg • Extremely Toxic Substances : 1 kg (based on LC < 20 mg/kg) • Toxic Substances; reference = 300 kg Chlorine • Explosive Substances; reference = 1000 kg TNT • See list of Dangerous substances and Threshold Quantities

  47. CORRECTION FACTOR c FOR LIQUIDS (I) Table 1 :

  48. CORRECTION FACTOR c FOR LIQUIDS (II)

  49. CORRECTION FACTOR d Tabel 2 : - 25˚C < boiling point < ambient ˚C : 0 - 75˚C < boiling point < - 25˚C : 1 - 125˚C < boiling point < - 75 ˚C : 2 boiling point < -125 ˚C : 3

  50. MH INSTALLATION CATEGORIES Designation Factor ( DF)