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Book One Lesson Five Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R. PowerPoint Presentation
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Book One Lesson Five Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R.

Book One Lesson Five Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R.

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Book One Lesson Five Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R.

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  1. Advanced English Book One Lesson Five Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R. 王承君2006.9.6

  2. Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R. • Germany • U.S.S.R. • Non-aggression Pact 王承君2006.9.6

  3. Speech on Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R. • In March 1939, Britain and France started talks with the Soviet Union on possible cooperation against Fascist Germany. • At that time Britain under Chamberlain and France under Daladier were pursuing a policy of appeasement. • After three months’ fruitless negotiation, the talks were broken off. 王承君2006.9.6

  4. Then in order to protect itself, the Soviet Union signed the non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany on August 23, 1939. • On Sept. 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland. • On Sept. 17, Soviet troops also crossed the border and moved into Poland, taking 77,000 sm of territory. 王承君2006.9.6

  5. Wang Cheng-jun • The Russo-Finnish war began on Nov. 1, 1939 and ended in March 1940. • The Finns sued for peace and ceded an area of over16,000 sm to the Soviet Union. • In June 1940, Soviet troops occupied the three Baltic states (拉脱维亚,爱沙尼亚,立陶宛,芬兰)and part of Rumania. 王承君2006.9.6

  6. Before the fall of Poland, British intelligence officers managed to get hold of a German coding machine and a group of code-breaking experts, called the Bletchly Park group, soon discovered how the machine worked. • With the help of this machine, the British were able to decipher all German coded messages. 王承君2006.9.6

  7. So on June 6, the British had already learnt that Hitler was to attack Russia and so passed on a warning to the Soviet Union, which was unheeded. • On June 20, two days before the invasion, Churchill worked on a speech to be broadcast to the world when the invading forces rolled into Russia. • The speech was carefully composed, full of grave themes and weighty arguments. • Churchill polished the text on June 22, 1941 in his Elizabethan manor at Chequers. 王承君2006.9.6

  8. Union Jack Union Flag • British Meteor Flag 王承君2006.9.6

  9. 王承君2006.9.6

  10. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill British politician and prime minister of the United Kingdom 王承君2006.9.6

  11. Full name: • Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill • (1874-1965) • His names testify to the richness of his historic inheritance: • Winston,after the Royalist family with whom the Churchill married before the English Civil War; • Leonard,after his remarkable grandfather, Leonard Jerome of New York; • Spencer,the married name of a daughter of the 1st duke of Marlborough, from whom the family descended; • Churchill, the family name of the 1st duke, which his descendents resumed after the Battle of Waterloo. 王承君2006.9.6

  12. quick facts BirthNovember 30, 1874 DeathJanuary 24, 1965 Place of BirthBlenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England Political PartyConservative Official TitlePrime minister Term 1940-1945 Prime minister of the United Kingdom 1951-1955 Prime minister of the United Kingdom Known forLeading the United Kingdom and the Allies to victory in World War II. Award1953 Nobel Prize in literature 王承君2006.9.6

  13. Little Churchill As a small boy and a young man, he was neither happy nor successful at school. But very early in his life, he exhibited the physical courage and love of adventure and action that he was to keep throughout his political career. He reported the war affairs in Spain, India and Sudan as a war correspondent. 王承君2006.9.6

  14. Little Churchill 王承君2006.9.6

  15. Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) • Winston Churchill was born on Nov. 30,1874. • He was the eldest son in the family. • He went to Harrow in 1888 and then to the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. • He was neither successful nor happy at school. • (Other famous public schools in England are Eton, Winchester, Charterhouse, Rugby etc.) 王承君2006.9.6

  16. Facts about Churchill • In school Churchill was at the bottom of his class. Nothing showed that he would become “the largest human being of our time” • Physically he was not a big man - at 5-foot-8 he was shorter than Harry Truman. 王承君2006.9.6

  17. 1895: He was commissioned in the Fourth Hussars. He soon obtained a leave, and worked during the Cuban war as a reporter for the London Daily Graphic. • 1896 --- 1897: Churchill served as a soldier and journalist in India. • 1900: After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament. 王承君2006.9.6

  18. 1904: He switched from conservatives to Liberal Party… • 1910-11: Home secretary • 1911-1915: Lord of the admiralty • 1940-1945: Prime Minister and Minister of Defense • 1951:Prime Minister (1955 resign) • 1953: Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter • 1955-1964: a Member of Parliament • 1963: the honorary citizenship of the United States conferred by President Kennedy • 1965:He suffered cerebral thrombosis 王承君2006.9.6

  19. Lord Randolph Churchill Blenheim Palace 王承君2006.9.6

  20. MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT • Following his graduation from the Royal Military College he was commissioned in the Forth Hussars. • As a war correspondent he was captured. • After his escape he became a National Hero. • Ten month later he was elected as a member of the Conservative Party. • In 1904 he joined the Liberal Party where he became the president of the Board of Trade. Winston Churchill in 1904 王承君2006.9.6

  21. WORLD WAR I His career was almost destroyed as a result of the unsuccessful Gallipoli campaign during the First World War. Gallipoli Campaign For ten years during the depression Churchill was denied cabinet office. 王承君2006.9.6

  22. WORLD WAR II • World War II broke out in September 1939 when Germany marched into Poland. • Britain and France responded to the invasion of Poland by declaring war on Germany. I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. • Chamberlain invited Churchill to become a member of his war cabinet. • He was national commander in chief. He supervised every aspect of the war effort. • Chamberlain resigned, and King George VI asked Churchill to be prime minister. 王承君2006.9.6

  23. War Leader He successfully secured military aid and moral support from the United States. He traveled endlessly during the war establishing close ties with leaders of other nations and coordinated a military strategy which subsequently ensured Hitler's defeat. Russia would still exert an immense and ultimately decisive force. 王承君2006.9.6

  24. Never got into the upper school to study classics. Hobby: Painting and writing English essays 王承君2006.9.6

  25. 王承君2006.9.6

  26. Atlantic Alliance • In August 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt met for the first time during the war. • When the United States entered the war in December 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to concentrate on defeating Hitler in Europe. World War II ended in 1945, first in Europe in May when the Germans surrendered to the Allied powers, and then in the Pacific in August. 王承君2006.9.6

  27. British general elections, postponed during the war, were held in July 1945. Churchill ran in the election as a Conservative. but the Labour Party gained a majority in Parliament because the British public opinion sought social and economic reforms that the Conservatives had resisted. Churchill retired as prime minister in deep disappointment. 王承君2006.9.6

  28. LATER YEARS He delivered a series of speeches that encouraged the unity of Western Europe against the growing Communist threat. In 1946, in a speech at Fulton, Missouri, he defined the barrier thrown up by the USSR around the nations of eastern Europe as the "iron curtain." 王承君2006.9.6

  29. In 1951 Churchill's efforts to revitalize the Conservative Party were rewarded, and he again became prime minister. He began to write his six-volume work, The Second World War (1948-1954), a comprehensive first-person account of his wartime statesmanship. 王承君2006.9.6

  30. In 1953 Queen Elizabeth II conferred on him the Knighthood of the Garter, and he became Sir Winston Churchill. • In the same year he won the Nobel Prize for literature for his historical and biographical works and for his oratory. • In November 1954, on Churchill's 80th birthday, the House of Commons honored him on the eve of his retirement. • In April 1955 he resigned as prime minister but remained a member of the House of Commons. 王承君2006.9.6

  31. Churchill died peacefully at his town house in London, two months after his 90th birthday. Following a state funeral service that was attended by dozens of world leaders at Saint Paul’s Cathedral, he was buried near Blenheim Palace. 王承君2006.9.6

  32. His works, combining personal perspective with great historical themes, are written with great sweep and lucidity. • They include the World Crisis, an account of WWI; • the 2nd World War; • and History of the English Speaking Peoples. 王承君2006.9.6

  33. 王承君2006.9.6

  34. 王承君2006.9.6

  35. 王承君2006.9.6

  36. Man of great capability and versatility historian statesman literary figure orator life peer stylist strategist 王承君2006.9.6

  37. The World-famous Tongue: • 1. Never give in. Never give in. Never, never, never, never. • --------“永不放弃……决不……决不……决不”. • 2. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duty, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour.’“ (London, England, June 18, 1940) • --------让我们 勇敢地承担任务 以至英帝国 和她的联邦在一千年后人们也可以这么说:“这是他们最辉煌的时刻。” • 3. I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat • --------我没有别的,只有热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水献给大家. 王承君2006.9.6

  38. Quotations on War: • Never, never, never believe any war will be smooth and easy, or that anyone who embarks on the strange voyage can measure the tides and hurricanes he will encounter. The statesman who yields to war fever must realize that once the signal is given, he is no longer the master of policy but the slave of unforeseeable and uncontrollable events. • History will be kind to me for I intend to write it. • Sir Winston Churchill 王承君2006.9.6

  39. One day President Roosevelt told me that he was asking publicly for suggestions about what the war should be called. I said at once 'The Unnecessary War'. • Sir Winston Churchill, Second World War (1948) • Older men declare war. But it is youth that must fight and die. And it is youth who must inherit the tribulation, the sorrow, and the triumphs that are the aftermath of war. • --Herbert Hoover, speech (1944) 王承君2006.9.6

  40. “To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.” • --------------George Washington • In unity lies strength. • United, we stand; divided we fall. • --------------Lincoln 王承君2006.9.6

  41. We hear war called murder. It is not: it is suicide. • --Ramsay MacDonald, quoted in the Observer • To fight and conquer in all our battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting. • Sun-Tzu, The Art Of War “不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也”。 • “War is peace; ignorance is strength; slavery is freedom.” • George Orwell, 1984 • The only excuse for war is that we may live in peace unharmed. • Cicero, De Officiis 王承君2006.9.6

  42. Suggested Reading List • The Winds of War 1971 • War and Remembrance 1977 by Herman Wouk • The World Crisis (6 vols, 1923-31) • The Second World War (6 vols, 1948-53) • History of the English Speaking Peoples (4 vols, 1956-58) by Winston Churchill 王承君2006.9.6

  43. Some more important information in WW II • God Save the Queen (1749) • The Star-Spangled Banner (1931) • March of the Volunteers • Munich Pact • Dominions • Commonwealth of Nations or British Commonwealth of Nations • The British Empire 王承君2006.9.6

  44. Adolf Hitler • On April 20, 1889:  Adolf Hitler was born at Braunau-am-Inn, Austria. • 1914-1918: Hitler in World War One   • 1919: Hitler Joined German Workers' Party   • 1920: Nazi Party was formed 王承君2006.9.6

  45. Adolf Hitler • With the Russians rapidly approaching his bunker in Berlin, Hitler and Eva committed suicide on April 30, 1945. 王承君2006.9.6

  46. Adolf Hitler 王承君2006.9.6

  47. Adolf Hitler 王承君2006.9.6

  48. Adolf Hitler 王承君2006.9.6

  49. Invasion 王承君2006.9.6

  50. The army’s landed in Nomandi 1944.06.06 王承君2006.9.6