Day 02 Flight Management
Important Managerial Skills • Delegating effectively and ensuring work is done. • Being an effective communicator. • Thinking critically. • Managing work load/time. • Identifying clear roles for everyone. • Creating the right environment that satisfy everyone in the organization. Instigating openness, trust, cheerful and challenge
Importance to prepare for changes • Importance of customers / clients to the Manager’s job. • Important of Innovation and Creativity to the Manager’s job. • Important of calculated risk-taking.
Management History • Learning Outcomes • Describe the historical background of management • Explain various theories in the classical approach. • Describe the quantitative approach. • Discuss the development and uses of the behavioural approach.
History • In western society, there were two significant events to management history. • In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations – he argued the economic advantages that organizations and society would gain from the division of labor. • The industrial revolution in the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power.
Classical Approach • Scientific Management • Pioneered by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his book “Principles of Scientific Management” • The use of scientific method (mathematics) to find the “best way”. • General Administrative Theory. • By observing management from the perspective of the entire organization. • Prominent names : Henry Fayol and Max Weber.
General Administrative Theory Weber’s Bureaucracy
Quantitative Approach • Uses the statistical method and quantitative models to improve decision making. • It involves applying statistics, optimizatio techniques, information models, computer simulations and other relevant quantitative techniques that could help to management activities. Eg, linear programming, critical path scheduling for project flow.
Behavioral Approach • Focusing on the people, to be specific their behavior, the psychological aspect of human beings. • Managing people – motivating, leading, building trust, working with a team, managing conflict, …..
Behavioral Approach • Hawthorn Studies – a series of studies that examines productivity and working conditions. • The outcomes are people’s behaviour and attitudes are closely related, that group factors significantly affect individual behaviour. Group standards determine the output of the worker. And money incentive alone is not a deciding factor.
Contemporary Approach • Systems Theory – by studying the system of an organization. Two types were observed, close system where it does not interact with environment and open system which interact with environment. Departments in an organization must operate optimally so that all departments can operate optimally. If one is not, others will suffer too.
Contemporary Approach • Contingency Theory – a very fluidic type of management that considers a change of management style when necessary. If there is a change in the world market, then there is a need to change the way of managing people, buying raw materials. The important is able to anticipate the change and able to do a preemptive measures.
Organizational Culture • It has been described as shared values, principles, and way of doing things that influence the way organizational members act. • The definition of culture implies three main points (i) perception (ii) descriptive and (iii) shared. • There are seven dimensions of organizational culture.
How employees learn culture • Stories • Rituals • Material Symbols • Language Exercise – what culture do Google, Microsoft, HP, Intel, Apple preach?
Relevant Culture Issues • Creating an ethical culture. • Creating an innovative culture. • Creating a customer-responsive and friendly culture. • Creating a culture that supports diversity. • Spirituality and Organizational Culture.
Dealing with changing environment • Assessing environmental uncertainty and complexity.
Managing Global Environment • Global Trade - shaped by regional trade alliance such as ASEAN, EU, AFTA, NAFTA and trade agreements via World Trade Organization.