mrna to protein n.
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mRNA to Protein

mRNA to Protein

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mRNA to Protein

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  1. mRNA to Protein Thanks to Ms. Dozier and Ms. Kimball for many of these slides!

  2. 3 Types of RNA mRNA (messenger): Brings info from DNA in nucleus to ribosome in cytoplasm tRNA (transfer): associates three RNA bases (codon) with amino acid rRNA (ribosomal): part of ribosomal machinery

  3. Protein • A protein is a polymer • Monomers are called Amino Acids (AAs) • AAs are held together by peptide bonds, so a protein is also called a polypeptide • 20 types of AAs • Protein function is determined by the order and number of AAs

  4. Amino Acids Each amino acid has same backbone Different “R” groups

  5. Protein Structure After the AAs are strung together they are folded into a 3-D shape Must be folded to do a job Unfolded proteins called “denatured”

  6. Protein Function Used for: cellular structure movement defense transport communication Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions

  7. How are proteins made? Now that we know a little more about proteins and why they’re important, let’s continue looking at how they are made! We’ve looked at the first part of protein synthesis. What was it called?

  8. 2 Parts of Protein Synthesis Transcription Translation

  9. Translation (Part 2 of Protein Synthesis) mRNA travels from nucleus to cytoplasm and attaches to ribosome Ribosome "decodes" mRNA sequence Each 3 nucleotide mRNA section is a codonthat codes for an amino acid (AA) Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) then transport the amino acids to polypeptide chain (each tRNA anticodon corresponds to an mRNA codon)

  10. Codons Series of 3 nucleotides which codes for a specific amino acid. 64 codons code for 20 amino acids. 1 codon can code for ONE amino acid ONLY But… Several codons can code for the same amino acid

  11. Codons One start codon- AUG Also codes for Methionine (Met) 3 stop codons UAA, UAG, UGA

  12. Practice Use your Codon Table and list the amino acids in your notes that each codon codes for. Amino Acid: m

  13. Protein Synthesis

  14. Translate this DNA sequence to mRNA, tRNA, and then AAs in your notes: : TAC TGC ATA CTG GGC ATC : AUG ACG UAU GAC CCG UAG : UAC UGC AUA CUG GGC AUC :start Thr Tyr Asp Pro Stop DNA mRNA tRNA AAs Use mRNA codon