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Resistance Training

Resistance Training

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Resistance Training

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  1. Resistance Training

  2. Strength • Maximum force or tension generated by a muscle or muscle group • specific movement pattern • specific velocity

  3. Fast Twitch • Speed of action-Fast • Speed of relaxation-Fast • Fatigue resistance-Low • Force Capacity-High • Fiber Diameter-Large • Capillaries and MV-Low • Myosin ATPase-High • Glycolytic Capacity-High

  4. Slow Twitch • Speed of action-Slow • Speed of relaxation-Slow • Fatigue resistance-High • Force Capacity-Low • Fiber Diameter-Small • Capillaries and MV-Low • Myosin ATPase-Low • Oxydative Capacity-High

  5. Strength • Strength is task-specific • e.g. bench press vs. clean & jerk • Functional strength

  6. How Do We Measure • Tensiometry • Dynamometry • 1 RM • Computer Assisted

  7. Muscle Actions • Concentric • Eccentric • Isometric • Isokinetic?

  8. Why do we strength train? Adaptation • adjustment to the environment • Fitness • Health • Sports • Muscle Physiology • Physical Therapy

  9. Number Size Type Equivocal Increase Unknown Physiological Adaptations Muscle Fibers

  10. Bodybuilders Power lifters No change Decrease Capillary Density

  11. Volume Density Decrease Decrease Mitochondria

  12. Anaerobic Enzymes Intramuscular Fuel Stores Twitch Contraction Time Increase Increase Decrease Physiological Adaptations

  13. Ligament Strength Tendon Strength Bone Mineral Content Cross-Sectional Increase Increase Increase No-change Physiological Adaptations

  14. What influences adaptation? 1. Stimulus magnitude / overload 2. Accommodation 3. Specificity 4. Individualization

  15. Stimulus Magnitude • Stimulating • Retaining • Detraining

  16. Stimulus Magnitude • Training stimulus • Intensity • Load • Stress

  17. Stimulus Magnitude

  18. Overload - DeLorme (1946) • To increase size or functional ability, muscle fibers must be taxed toward their present capacity to respond • Threshold point - must be exceeded for adaptation to occur

  19. Accommodation Performance Gain Training time, training load

  20. Accommodation Progressive • Quantitative • Qualitative

  21. Specificity Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID) • muscle groups • speed of event • strength • endurance

  22. Specificity “Transfer of training”

  23. Can we measure “transfer of training”? Result gain = Gain in performance Std. Dev. of performance Transfer = Result gain in nontrained exercise Result gain in trained exercise

  24. Specificity

  25. Specificity 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

  26. Transfer of Training

  27. Transfer of Training

  28. Individualization • People are different • Variability

  29. Exercise Prescription

  30. Window of Adaptation

  31. Exercise Prescription Scientific knowledge base for resistance training Test Data Needs analysis Assimilation Program Administrative Concerns Choices Acute program variables Individualization Monitoring, testing Chronic program manipulations

  32. Exercise Prescription Needs Analysis • What muscle groups? • What type of muscle action? • What are the basic energy sources? • What are the 10 sites of injury/prior injuries?

  33. Needs Analysis Exercise Movements • Specific muscles • Joint angles • Contraction mode • Loading needs

  34. Needs Analysis Energy Source • ATP-PC • Lactic Acid • Oxygen

  35. Acute Program Variables • Choice of exercise • Order of exercise • Number of sets • Rest duration • Load/intensity

  36. Choice of Exercise • Structural • Body Part • Contraction mode

  37. Order of Exercise • Large first • Small first (pre-exhaust) • Arm to leg/arm-arm, leg-leg

  38. Number of Sets • 3 - 6 • single

  39. Rest Duration • Short < 1 minute • Moderate 1 to 3 minutes • Long > 3 minutes

  40. Load

  41. Progressive Resistance Training Overload • Training stimulus/intensity/load/stress must exceed normal loading • biological tissue Progressive • Overload continues as system accommodates

  42. Overload Parameters Frequency Mode Duration Intensity • Load • Repetitions • Duration • Sets