RESISTANCE / STRENGTHTRAINING CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP
Generic Content Distribution, contd Balyi, 1997
Training Progression Technique Technique + Endurance + Circuit Tr. Technique + Power + Str. Tr. + End. Tr. AGE 8 13 16/18 Incorporate technical & fitness parameters with sport performance for evaluation, up to at least 16 / 17 yrs old.
Stabilizes in adulthood INFLUENCE OF MATURATION ON STRENGTH Contributions to muscle strength during maturation 100% Adult potential Lean body mass Testosterone Neural myelination development Birth Puberty Adult Strength primarily via motor patterns NEURAL Consolidation of strength Factors HORMONAL Optimal strength Potential (Kraemer, 1989)
Methods of Strength Training • Three ways to achieve maximal muscular tension: • Maximal effort method -Lifting a maximal load • Submaximal & repeated effort methods -Lifting a nonmaximal load to failure … during final reps, muscles develop maximum force (increased muscle recruitment) as earlier recruited muscle fibers fatigue 3. Dynamic effort method - Lifting (throwing) a nonmaximal load with the highest attainable speed Zatsiorsky, 1995
Training intensity can be estimated by: • Magnitude of the resistance % of best – 80% of 1RM load • Number of reps per set (10reps) • Number of reps or % with maximal resistance (10RM or max reps at 80% 1RM) HOWEVER…….. • Exercising at varying levels of resistance causes differences in metabolic reactions,intramuscular coordination,biomechanical variables and intermuscular coordination Zatsiorsky, 1995
Note: Total amount of degraded protein is a function of both the mechanical work performed (i.e., total weight lifted) & the rate of protein catabolism. • Simply put – the more weight lifted over time the greater the protein breakdown (catabolism) and the greater potential for muscle rebuilding. • However, is this important in young athletes? • Remember that neural component is very large – learning to recruit the muscles • Post puberty we see the influx of hormones which allows us to maximize mass (hypertrophy) - particularly when training is between 5 – 6 & 10 – 12 RM. Zatsiorsky, 1995
Maximal effort method: • Maximum # of MUs (motor units) activated with optimal discharge frequency • MU – includes the path from the brain to the muscle fibers recruited via the path • Train Considered superior for improving both intra (within the muscle) & intermuscular (between muscles) coordination • movement = 1 – 3 reps • OK for superior athletes … BUT several limitations, such as high risk of injury. Zatsiorsky, 1995
Submaximal & Repeated effort methods: • These two types of lifts are similar in ability to induce muscle hypertrophy … BUT differ in respect to muscular strength and neuromuscular coordination • Submaximal enhancement of strength or specific intramuscular coordination (greatest method for safe lifting) • Repeated lifts are really useful for inducing hypertrophy particularly where max # of MUs are recruited! Fatiguing sets or failure. Zatsiorsky, 1995
Long-Term Development Guidelines for training the young athlete
Laws of Strength TrainingBompa 2002 • Law One: Develop Joint Flexibility achieving full range of motion at a joint allows for force production throughout the full range and reduces chance of injury and poor lifting techniques • Law Two: Develop Tendon Strength Before Muscle Strength muscle strength improves faster than tendon’s ability to withstand force – spend time in the anatomical (progressive) adaptation phase
……..laws continued. • Law Three: Develop Core Strength Before the Limbs Exercises should start from the core and work towards the extremities. The limbs are only as strong as the core. A strong core works as a platform in which the extremities work from.
Long Term Development 14 20+ 18 AGE: 12 16 Foundational athletic skills (Core strength, balance, agility, coordination, flexibility, general strength) Advanced strength training methods Teach lifting technique Emphasize foundational athletic skills Introduce strength exercises with dbells Mastery of lifting technique Basic strength training methods Use all types of strength exercise Introduce ballistic exercises Develop lifting technique Emphasize strength exercises with dbells Introduce barbell exercises
Long Term Development 14 20+ 18 AGE: 12 16 Circuit training High repetitions Timed sets Barbell lifting technique with broom stick and light barbell Keep repetitions above 10 RM Barbell lifting technique with light to moderate loads Keep repetitions above 6RM Bodyweight in-place explosive training exercises Execution of advanced lifting technique (Olympic Lifts) Advanced lifting strategies Weighted explosive training Train to Train
Guidelines for strength trainingTrain to Train • Design programs that focus on injury prevention. Focus on the hips, abs, low back, legs and shoulders. • Use circuit type training that involves 6-9 stations to develop basic strength – perform only 1-2sets. • Training session should be no longer than 15-20min with an increase up to 30min. • Design circuit so there is an alternation between body parts – i.e. legs, arms, back, abs • Focus should be on technique – de-emphasize competitive behavoir and reward individual improvement.