Legislative Framework Victorian workplaces are covered by the OHS Act 2004 OHS Act 2004 Regulations eg. Confined Space Entry Codes of Practice Compliance Codes Australian Standards Guidelines and Advice
Purpose of the Act • To eliminate risks and hazards And • To minimise risks
Duties of employers to employees and contractors • Provide and maintain safe systems of work • Hazardous substance management • Maintain safe workplaces • Providing adequate welfare facilities • Provide instruction, guidance, training or supervision to employees and visitors
Duties of employers to monitor safe working conditions • Monitor health of workers and working conditions • Keep health and safety records • Employ or engage a suitably qualified safety advisor Employers must also ensure the protection of members of the public.
Duties of employees • Take reasonable care for own safety and the safety of others • Cooperate with actions taken by the employer to comply with Legislation • Must not intentionally or recklessly interfere with worksite safety
Further duties exist for: • Designers of plant • Designers of buildings and structures • Manufacturers of plant & substances • Suppliers of plant and substances • Installers of plant All persons have the duty to not recklessly endanger others.
Consultation and Representation • Employers must consult with employees about OH&S • Allows establishment of a Designated Work Group (DWG) • Allows election of a Health and Safety Representative (HSR)
Two approaches to risk ID • Theoretical Approach • Prepare or obtain a Standard operating procedure (SOP) • Prepare a list of task indicated in SOP • Assess the possible risk involved in each task • Recommend and if need be implement risk mitigation procedures • Brainstorming with a group of people to think of possible hazards
Second Approach • Empirical approach • Physical inspection of theworkplace • Requires a check list • Examination of Previous Accident Reports may not show hazards if accidents have not happend yet. • Lack accidents may due to skill of workers ( 1st approach may be needed as well)
Physical inspection of theworkplace • A physical examination of the workplace requires an inquiring mind, lateral thinking, and the ability to be and remain open minded. • It is of little use to look at a particular area and, in a perfunctory manner, declare it to be hazard free. • Some of the tools used to make sure all avenues of inquiry have been explored follow.
Brainstorming • This is a process of conducting group meetings with people who are familiar with the operation of the area under review, • Recording all ideas and thoughts relating to possible hazards and • then sorting the results into some sort of priority order.
Knowledge of Employees • Employees should be encouraged to describe any hazards they are aware of. • Inquiries of this nature should be conducted in an atmosphere of 'no blame' where even if the employee is not doing things properly they are not criticised for it. • The aim is to identify and document hazards at this stage.
Chemical Hazards Asphyxiants: Gases that deprive the body tissues of oxygen Simple asphyxiants: physiologically inert gases Chemical asphyxiants: Examples: carbon monoxide and cyanide. HCN and H2S
Irritants: chemicals that irritate the air passages. Constriction of the airways May lead to edema (liquid in the lungs) and infection. Examples: HF, Cl 2, HCl, and ammonia. Necrosis producers: Chemicals that result in cell death. Examples: ozone and nitrogen dioxide.
Fibrosis producers: Chemicals that produce fibrotic tissue which, may blocks airways Examples: silicates, asbestos, and beryllium. Allergens: Induce an allergy eg. bronchoconstriction Examples: isocyanates and sulfur dioxide. Carcinogens: -> cancer. Examples: cigarette smoke, coke oven emissions, asbestos, and arsenic.
Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS – what you need to know about them
What do MSDSs contain? • Identification of the product • Teepol Aluminium Cleaner • - sales unit and stock code • - address and contact details for the supplier
What do MSDSs contain? • Composition/ information on ingredients. (Exact formulations & details of non-hazardous components not required – protects from rival manufacturers) • CAS & EINECS are identifications codes • Risk phrases (from CHIP data- see later) • Alcohol Ethoxylate <1% • Phosphoric acid 15 – 30% • Benzotriazole <1% • Formaldehyde <1%
What do MSDSs contain? • Hazards identified (i.e. those known about when the product is used in the way the manufacturer intends) • Irritating to eye and skin • Large amounts could be hazardous to aquatic environment
What do MSDSs contain? • First aid measures • Eyes - irrigate with water 10-15 minutes • Skin – remove gloves and wash • Ingestions – plenty of water to drink • (This is incorrect - should be small sips!!) • Inhalation- remove to fresh air • Always check out first aid information with your Departmental First Aider or Safety Services
What do MSDSs contain? • Fire fighting measures • The material is non-flammable • If involved in a fire anyway, it may produce hydrogen chloride (an acid gas) • Breathing apparatus is relevant to the Fire Service – not us!
What do MSDSs contain? • Measures for spillage or accidental release • Spillage • contain with sand or earth • Beware of slipping hazard • Do not allow to go down the drains (report any significant leakage down the drains to the water authorities – take advice) • You will need to ensure that your department stocks appropriate materials to deal with these incidents.
What do MSDSs contain? • Handling and storage • Store away from food • Tightly closed containers • Away from children • At temperatures between 5oC & 30oC • Shelf life 1 year • In this case, largely “common sense” information but for some products it could be more critical
What do MSDSs contain? • Exposure controls &/or personal protective equipment (PPE) • These are standard safety signs denoting the need to wear gloves, face shield and protective clothing. • NB It does not tell you whatsortof gloves are appropriate. You would need to find this out by consulting a gloves manufacturer regarding the hazardous materials in the product – see the “Guidance” section of Safety Services website
What do MSDSs contain? • Physical & Chemical Properties • Appearance – what it looks like • pH – acidity/alkalinity of the product – a pH of <1 denotes significant acidity • Flash point – it is not flammable • Density (>1 means it is more dense than water)
In terms of hazard, both high pHs (strong alkali) and low pHs (strong acid) are nasty. For substances with pHs around 7 acidity & alkalinity are not generally a problem.
What do MSDSs contain? • Stability & reactivity • No stability concerns – it won’t “go off” • Avoid contact with strong oxidisers, chlorine & chlorine products – nasty gases possible • Contact with some alloys may produce hydrogen – explosion potential because of low pH! (but not in normal use)
What do MSDSs contain? • Toxicological information (what nasty things will it do to you?) • Irritating to organic tissue (skin & eyes) • Inhalation of aerosol may cause irritation • Ingestion – irritation to mouth & digestive tract (it’s a strong acid) • Eye contact – may cause severe irritation (acid again!) • Skin contact – irritation! • Connected with first aid information here, but in some circumstances, may give details of longer term medical problems, where appropriate
What do MSDSs contain? • Ecological information • How environmentally friendly is it? • Biodegrades – does not remain in soil etc • Don’t release into surface waters eg detergents can cause unsightly rivers and may affect waterproofing of water birds
What do MSDSs contain? • Disposal considerations • Use suitable PPE (see previous information) • Rinse out containers • Don’t allow to enter drains • Dispose of according to local regulations • Do not mix with other waste • This is not as formidable as it sounds – a bit of advice from Safety Services or Estates will help
Chemical storage B.Brazier 2010
BACKGROUND • Fire and explosion are only two of the many hazards. • Over 500 chemical-storage incidents were over the past 5 years. • These incidents occurred due to unsafe chemical storage practices. B.Brazier 2010
Storage-related incidents • Principal causes: • 1. Improper or non-existent labeling of chemicals in storage. • 2. Storage of chemicals beyond the recommended shelf-life. • 3. Degradation of chemical storage containers. ("Polyethylene Bottles Containing Corrosive Chemicals May Deteriorate With Prolonged Use," B.Brazier 2010
IMPROPER LABELING • Small amounts of "left-over" chemicals had accumulated over several years. • The chemicals were prepared for recycling or disposal by removing the chemicals from their individual containers and putting them into a plastic bucket. • Powder that was thought to be a base material was poured from an unlabeled jar into the bucket, resulting in spontaneous ignition. • The building then had to be evacuated, and the fire department was summoned to put out the fire. • Analysis performed by the laboratory later revealed that the powder was maleic anhydride, B.Brazier 2010
EXTENDED TIME IN STORAGE • Unrefrigerated ether cannot be stored safely for over 6 months because peroxides, which are shock-sensitive, can form and cause an explosion. • The building that housed the 18 ether containers had to be evacuated, and barricades had to be assembled to protect flammable inventory. • The peroxides were then neutralized with ferrous sulphate, and all 21 containers were removed. • Periodic inspection and removal of outdated chemicals in storage would have prevented the incident. B.Brazier 2010
Storage rules • Label all chemicals. The name and address of the manufacturer or other responsible party must be listed on the label. Chemicals with a shelf life should be labeled with the date received. • Store chemicals in the locations recommended (i.e., where the temperature range, vibration, or the amount of light does not exceed the manufacturer's recommendations). Make sure that chemicals that are stored together are compatible. B.Brazier 2010
Storage rules 3. Inspect annually all chemicals in stock and storage. 4. Hazardous chemicals should be inspected every 6 months. 5. Some hazardous chemicals may require more frequent inspections. 6. Any outdated materials should be properly disposed of or replaced if necessary B.Brazier 2010
Storing Acids • Store large bottles of acids on low shelf or in acid cabinets. • Segregate oxidizing acids from organic acids, flammables and combustible materials. • Segregate acids from bases and active metals such as sodium, potassium, etc. • Use bottle carrier for transporting acid bottles. • Have spill control pillows or acid neutralizers available in case of spill. B.Brazier 2010
Strong Oxidizing Acids • Chromic Acid • Nitric Acid • Hydrobromic Acid • Perchloric Acid • Iodic Acid • Sulfuric Acid B.Brazier 2010
Organic Acids • Acetic Acid • Phenol • Benzoic Acid • Trichloracetic Acid B.Brazier 2010
Storing Bases • Segregate bases from acids • Store solutions of inorganic hydroxides in polyethylene containers. • Have spill control pillows or caustic neutralizers available for spills. B.Brazier 2010
Bases • Ammonium Hydroxide • Calcium Hydroxide • Bicarbonates • Potassium Hydroxide • Carbonates • Sodium Hydroxide B.Brazier 2010
Flammable • Store in approved safety cans or cabinets • Segregate from oxidizing acids and oxidizers. • Keep away from any source of ignition: flames, heat or sparks. • Know where fire fighting equipment is stored and how to use. • If volatile flammable liquids are stored in a refrigerator it must be in an explosion-proof (lab-safe) refrigerator. B.Brazier 2010
Flammable Solids • Benzoyl peroxide • Phosphorous, yellow • Calcium Carbide • Picric Acids B.Brazier 2010