Occupational Health and Safety Dr. Buket Akyel
Occupational Safety and Health Act • OSHA covers private-sector employers with its mission to “send every worker home whole and healthy every day” • Enforces safety and health regulations and provides education and compliance assistance • Has right to inspect businesses, issue citations and fines • Employers responsible for following standards, notifying employees about them and handling complaints
Basic Causes of Accidents Unsafe Conditions Employees’ Unsafe Acts Chance Occurrences What Causes Accidents?
Improperly Guarded Equipment Improper Ventilation Defective Equipment Unsafe Conditions Hazardous Procedures Improper Illumination UnsafeStorage What Causes Accidents? (cont’d)
How to Prevent Accidents • Reduce unsafe conditions and encourage use of personal protective equipment • Emphasize safety • Select safety-minded employees • Provide safety training • Use posters, incentive programs, and positive reinforcement to motivate employees • Use behavior-based safety • Use employee participation • Conduct safety and health audits and inspections
Workplace Exposure Hazards • Chemicals and other hazardous materials. • Excessive noise and vibrations. • Temperature extremes. • Biohazards, including those that are normally occurring and man-made. • Ergonomic hazards of poorly designed equipment that forces workers to do jobs while contorted in unnatural positions. • Slippery floors and blocked passageways.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) • The ILO was created in 1919, after World War I, to reflect the belief that “universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it is based on social justice”.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) ILO is the only tripartite U.N. agency that has government, employer, and worker representatives. 183 Member States can freely and openly debate and elaborate labour standards and policies. • Formulate of international policies and programmes to promote basic human rights, improve working and living conditions, and enhance employment opportunities • Create of international labour standards • Help countries put these policies into practice in an effective manner • Train, educate to help advance all of these efforts
Laws, Regulations and Systems to Regulate Occupational Health and Safety in Turkey • Turkish Code of Obligations (Borçlar Kanunu) • Labor Law 4857 • Occupational Health and Safety Regulations prepared by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security . • OHSAS 18001 Management System
Occupational Health and Safety Turkish Labor Law Articles 77-89 • Employers shall take all the necessary measures and maintain all the needed means and tools in full; • Employees are under the obligation to obey and observe all the measures taken in the field of occupational health and safety.In industrial establishments, where a minimum of fifty employees are employed, • the employer shall set up an occupational health and safety board. • employ one or more physicians and nurses at the establishment • set up a health unit, to take occupational health and safety measures and to provide first aid, • employ an engineer or technical staff in charge of safety at work
Occupational Health and Safety Turkish Labor Law Articles 77-89 • In establishments where the necessary measures have not been taken, employees may terminate, with no obligation their employment contracts • If any defects endangering the lives of employees are found to exist, operations shall be stopped partly or completely or the establishment shall be closed until the danger is eliminated