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Structural Geology

Structural Geology

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Structural Geology

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  1. Structural Geology TECTONICS The Mechanics of the Earth Revealed by the Geology - Frédéric Flerit

  2. Our aim

  3. we study the DEFORMATION of the Earth before After

  4. and we study the E V O L U T I O N of the deformation how long ? rates before After

  5. Our Objects

  6. 1) The Earth Gravity + Rotation => Ellipsoid

  7. 2) The Mantle Convection => Plate Motion

  8. 3) The Lithosphere Eurasia India Intra-plate deformation => Orogenic belts

  9. Events !

  10. 4) The Crust Deformation produced by similar events…

  11. 4) The Rocks

  12. The Deformation Processes several objects and scales Rocks 1 m Crust 10 km Lithosphere 100 km Mantle 1000 km Earth 40.000 km

  13. After one Earthquake…

  14. After thousand earthquakes… Holocene scarp, west side of Mankhan Valley

  15. The Deformation Processes at several Time and Space scales

  16. The geology for reference

  17. The geological-time scale

  18. And Several TIME scales Earthquakes 1 s Two successive Earthquakes (Inter-seismic) 100-1kyr Landscape evolution 10 kyr Geology 1-1k Ma

  19. Method and Tools

  20. 1 ) We Observe the structures(geology geomorphology) Field : rocks Field : morphology Airplanes Satellites

  21. Mosaic of Landsat

  22. 1) And structures at depth(geophysics) Seimic profiles Tomography

  23. 1) We observe active deformation Geodesy GPS Radar Sismology

  24. 2) We Map Topography Structures Geology Mathematics : Geometry

  25. 2) And we Measure Holocene offsets of river beds

  26. 3) We use analogs and simple physics Elastic Viscous Plastic

  27. - 10k yrs (3) To Explainthe observations Present Physics : Block motion

  28. 2 1 Modele pour la deformation du Tibet (3) At several scales Carte tectonique Himalaya-Tibet

  29. Method • Observe < Earth Sciences • Measure < Mathematics • Explain < Physics

  30. The Math. recquired to attend the Course (I II) : - Geometry 3D (dot and scalar product) • Matrixes, Tensors, vectors • Projections, • Motion and combinaison of motion (translation rotation) • Integration, derivation • Trigonometry

  31. Published papers on the Ailao Shan - Red River Fault zone and SE Asia: Harrison, T. M., Chen Wenji, P. H. Leloup, F. J. Ryerson, and P. Tapponnier, An early Miocene transition in deformation regime within the Red River fault zone, Yunnan, and its significance for Indo-Asian tectonics, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7159-7182, 1992. Harrison T.M., P.H. Leloup, F.J. Ryerson, P. Tapponnier, R. Lacassin, and Chen Wenji, Diachronous initiation of Transtension along the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear zone, Yunnan and Vietnam, in The Tectonics of Asia, edited by An Yin, and T.M. Harrison, World and regional geology series, 208-226, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Lacassin, R., P. H. Leloup, and P. Tapponnier, Bounds on strain in large Tertiary shear zones of SE Asia from boudinage restoration, J. Struct. Geol., 15, 677-692, 1993. Lacassin, R., U. Schärer, P. H. Leloup, N. Arnaud, P. Tapponnier, Liu Xiaohan, and Zhang Lian-Sheng, Tertiary deformation and metamorphism SE of Tibet: The folded Tiger-leap décollement of NW Yunnan, China, Tectonics, 15, 605-622, 1996. Lacassin R., H. Maluski, P.H. Leloup, P. Tapponnier, C. Hinthong, K. Siribhakdi, S. Chuaviroj, and A. Charoenravat, Tertiary diachronic extrusion and deformation of western Indochina: structural and 40Ar/39Ar evidence from NW Thailand, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10013-10037, 1997. Lacassin, R., A. Replumaz, and P. H. Leloup, Hairpin river loop and slip sense inversion on SE-Asian strike-slip faults, Geology, 26, 703-706, 1998. Leloup, P. H., Cinématique des déformations "himalayennes" dans la zone de cisaillement crustale de l'Ailao Shan - Fleuve Rouge, Doctorat thesis , 148 pp., Université Paris 6, Paris, February 1991. Leloup, P. H., T. M. Harrison, F. J. Ryerson, Chen Wenji, L. Qi, P. Tapponnier, and R. Lacassin, Structural, petrological and thermal evolution of a Tertiary ductile strike-slip shear zone, Diancang Shan, Yunnan, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 6715-6743, 1993. Leloup, P. H., and J. R. Kienast, High Temperature deformation in a major Tertiary ductile continental strike-slip fault: evidence of shear heating at lithospheric scale?, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 118, 213-234, 1993. Leloup, P. H., R. Lacassin, P. Tapponnier, Zhong Dalai, Liu Xiaohan, Zhang Lianshang, Ji Shaocheng, and Phan Trong Trinh, The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina, Tectonophysics, 251, 3-84, 1995. Leloup, P.H., Y. Ricard, J. Battaglia, and R. Lacassin, Shear heating in continental strike-slip shear zones: numerical modeling and case studies, Geophys. J. Int., 136, 19-40, 1999. Leloup P.H., Arnaud N., Lacassin R., Kienast J.R., Harrison T.M., Phan Trong Trinh, Replumaz A., Tapponnier P, New constraints on the structure, thermochronology and timing of the Ailao Shan - Red River shear zone, SE Asia, J. Geophys. Res, 106, 6657-6671, 2001. Replumaz, A., Lacassin, R., Tapponnier, P., Leloup, P.H., Large river offests and Plio-Quaternary dextral slip-rate on the Red-River fault (Yunnan, China), J. Geophys. Res., 106, 819-836, 2001. Roger F., P.H. Leloup, M. Jolivet, R. Lacassin, Phan Trong Trinh, M. Brunel, D. Seward, Unravelling a long and complex thermal history by multi-system geochronology: example of the SongChay metamorphic dome, North Vietnam., Tectonophysics, 321, 449-466, 2000. Schärer, U., P. Tapponnier, R. Lacassin, P. H. Leloup, Zhong Dalai, and Ji Shaocheng, Intraplate tectonics in Asia: a precise age for large-scale Miocene movement along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 65-77, 1990. Schärer, U., Zhang Lian-Sheng, and P. Tapponnier, Duration of strike-slip movements in large shear zones: The REd River belt, China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 379-397, 1994. Tapponnier, P., R. Lacassin, P. H. Leloup, U. Schärer, Zhong Dalai, Liu Xiaohan, Ji Shaocheng, Zhang Lianshang, and Zhong Jiayou, The Ailao Shan/red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China, Nature, 343, 431-437, 1990. Zhang L., and U. Schärer, Inherited Pb components in magmatic titanite and their consequence for the interpretation of U-Pb ages, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 138, 57-65, 1996.

  32. Several sources to retrieve the Earthquake information

  33. TECTONICS Observe the Surfaces of the Earth Bathymetry-Topography Geomorphology (river bed, moraines…) Seismic (reflexion, refraction) Measure its Evolution Geodesy (GPS, Leveling, triangulation…) Seismology (tomography, focal mechanism, magnitude and locations) Geology