Akhyata in Traditional Marathi Grammar Sushant Devlekar CFILT firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline • Definition • History • Damale’s Treatment to verb • Classification of Akhyata • Tables of Akhyata • Salient Features • Limitations
Definition Akhyata : It is a group of suffixes. These suffixes are terminating and they agree with person. Akhyata attaches to a verb root to form a verb form. e.g. कर + तो =करतो verb root + Akhyata = verb form The term and concept of Akhyatais borrowed from Sanskrit grammar.
History • The previous grammarians like Dadoba Panduranga were giving only verb forms, without a systematic segmentation. e.g. करतो, बसतो, खेळतोetc. • They assumed a one-to-one mapping from form to tense. e.g. करतो : present tense
History contd. • They ignored usages where the same form shows more than one tense. e.g. मी करतो(I do). मी नंतर करतो(I willdo it later.)
Damale’s Treatment to Verbs • It systematically segments the verb forms in to verb root and suffixes. • It groups the suffixes according to their usage in different person, number and gender. • It names the groups of suffixes according to the phoneme they contain. e.g. takhyata, vakhyata, lakhyata etc. • It gives priority to form rather than meaning.
Classification of Akhyata • On the basis of different formswhich are used in different persons, and number • There are seven groups namely Prathama takhyata Dvitiya takhyata Lakhyata Vakyata/ avakhyata I-akhyata U-akhyata Ilakytata
Classification contd. • On the basis of inflection for gender • salinga: agrees with gender. • alinga : does not agree with gender • Prathama takhyata, Dvitiya takhyata, Lakhyata and vakyata/ avakhyata are salinga • I-akhyata, U-akhyata, Ilakytata are alinga
Salient Features • Considers actual data • Analyses segments of verb forms systematically. • Interprets all different meanings of a single form.
Limitations • Many suffixes have become out of date. e.g. त्यें, तें, त्येस, तीस • Chakhyata(चाख्यात)is not mentioned. • Determination of akhyata of gauna dhatu(गौण धातू)
Gauna dhatu • Gauna dhatu: verb roots of those verb forms in which the segmentation of verb roots and suffixes is no clear cut. • आहे, नाही, होतो, नव्हतो, पाहिजे, हवा, नको, नयेare verb forms of Gauna dhatu • They all agree with person and number • Damale has tried to segment them, but his efforts are not satisfactory.
Main references • शास्त्रीय मराठी व्याकरण, मोरो केशव दामले, संपा. कृ.श्री. अर्जुनवाडकर, १९७०, देशमुख आणि कंपनी, पुणे. • मराठी व्याकरण : वाद आणि प्रवाद, कृ.श्री. अर्जुनवाडकर, प्रथमावृत्ती, १९८७, सुलेखा प्रकाशन, पुणे.