Alkanes. Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis. Alkanes. acyclic hydrocarbons. saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons paraffins general formula C n H 2n+2. Sources of methane. product of anaerobic plant decay. major constituent of natural gas (97%)
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Alkenes. Properties Nomenclature Stability Addition Reactions. Ethylene. Electron Rich p -Bond. Cis and Trans no rotation about p -bond. Elements or Degrees of Unsaturation: p -Bond or Ring. Halogens replace Hydrogens. Saturated compounds with Oxygen and Nitrogen.
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AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 NOTES THERMOCHEMISTRY. Energy - the capacity to do work or to produce heat.
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AP Chem. Get Thermo Practice WS stamped off Today: Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy Spontaneous reactions Unit 4 Quest Th 11/8. First Law of Thermodynamics. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Therefore, the total energy of the universe is a constant.
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Microreactors as a Pilot and Production Scale Tool for Chemical Processes Dirk Kirschneck. Content. Introduction and Driving Forces Plant Concepts Project Examples a) Exothermic Reaction b) Precipitation c) Character Pharma Projects d) Liquid-Liquid Fine Chemicals Summary
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Standardized Test Preparation . Chapter 5. Preview. Multiple Choice Short Answer Extended Response. Standardized Test Preparation . Chapter 5. Multiple Choice. 1. In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged according to A. decreasing atomic mass.
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Periodic Trends/Patterns. CH. 2. Nuclear charge atomic size or radius ionization energy electron affinity electronegativity metallic character. Reactivity bonding characteristics crystal configurations acidic properties densities. Periodic Trend. Quantum Mechanical Model.
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Lecture 8 Summary. Spontaneous, exothermic. Spontaneous, exothermic. Spontaneous, endothermic. Lecture 9: Gibbs Free Energy G. Reading: Zumdahl 10.7, 10.9 Outline Defining the Gibbs Free Energy ( D G) Calculating D G (several ways to) Pictorial Representation of D G.
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SURVEY OF BIOCHEMISTRY Glycogen. 2 Ways To Generate Glucose. Glycogenolysis. Gluconeogenesis. Break down of glycogen. Synthesis of glucose from non-carb precursors. Glucose 1-Phosphate. Glucose. Pyruvate. Lactate. Glucose 6-Phosphate. Energetics of Reversing Glycolysis.
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6.27. Where on the blank outline of the periodic table do the following elements appear? (a) Main groups (b) Halogens (c) Alkali metals (d) Noble gases (e) Alkaline earths (f) Group 3A elements (g) Lanthanides. 6.28.
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Control of Structure. Why do elements and compounds adopt one structure as opposed to another?. Thermodynamics Review: ?G = ?H - T?S. Bond Strength Favored by strong bonds. Freedom of Movement Favored by more particles. Temperature Control?. Thermodynamics Review: ?G = ?H - T?S.
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Calculating ? H using molar heats of formation. Chem 12. If 1 mol of compound is formed from its constituent elements, then the enthalpy change for the reaction is called the enthalpy of formation, ? H o f . Standard conditions (standard state): 1 atm and 25 o C (298 K).
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Thermochemical Calculations. CA Standards. Units for Measuring Heat. The Joule is the SI system unit for measuring heat:. The calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree. Specific Heat.
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Entropy (S). A measure of the amount of disorder of a system Nature tends to move towards more disorder (higher entropy) Which has the greater entropy in each pair? NH 3 (g) or NH 3 (l) NH 3 (g) or NH 3 ( aq ) CO 2 (s) or CO 2 (g) KBr (s) or KBr (l).
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2. Energy Level Diagram. Elements: 12C(s), 14H 2 (g), 19O 2 (g). 0. D H f o kJ. Reactants : 2C 6 H 14 (l). 2 D H f o C 6 H 14 -334. S n D H f o (react) = -334. Products : 14H 2 O(g). Net D -7782 or -3891 kJ/mol. 14 D H f o H2O -3388. 1. Using Formula.
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