Roman Civilization Chapter Introduction Section 1 Life in Ancient Rome Section 2 The Fall of Rome Section 3 The Byzantine Empire Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Roman Civilization Chapter Objectives • Discuss the cultural achievements of the Romans and describe the daily lives of people in Rome. • Explain why the Roman Empire fell and summarize its legacy in law, government, language, and the arts. • Describe the rise and cultural accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire.
Life in Ancient Rome Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the cultural achievements and daily life of the Roman people during the height of the empire.
Life in Ancient Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • In addition to their own developments in science and engineering, Roman artists and writers borrowed many ideas from the Greeks. • The rich and poor had very different lives in the Roman Empire, as did men and women.
Life in Ancient Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Virgil (VUHR·juhl) • Horace (HAWR·uhs) • Galen (GAY·luhn) • Ptolemy (TAH·luh·mee) • Spartacus (SPAHR·tuh·kuhs)
Life in Ancient Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • vault (VAWLT) • satire (SA·TYR) • ode (OHD) • anatomy (uh·NA·tuh·mee) • forum (FOHR·uhm) • gladiator (GLA·dee·AY·tuhr) • paterfamilias (PA·tuhr·fuh·MIH·lee·uhs) • rhetoric (REH·tuh·rihk)
Life in Ancient Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Use a Venn diagram like the one on page 302 of your textbook to show similarities and differences between the rich and the poor in Rome.
Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture • The Romans admired the Greeks and copied some of their ideas, though they often changed what they borrowed. • Roman statues and art portrayed people with flaws, whereas Greek art and statues portrayed ideal people. • Romans incorporated Greek ideas in their architecture, such as columns and porches. (pages 303–305)
Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.) • They also used their own ideas, such as arches, domes, and vaults, which are curved ceilings. • Two famous buildings still stand today: the Colosseum, which is a large arena, and the Pantheon, which is a temple built in honor of Rome’s gods. (pages 303–305)
Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.) • The Roman writer Virgil wrote the Aeneid, which tells the story of the Trojan prince Aeneas and his followers. • The poet Horace wrote satires, which are works that poke fun at human weaknesses, and odes, which express strong emotions about life. • The writers Ovid and Catullus were inspired by Greek writing and myths. (pages 303–305)
Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.) • Livy, one of Rome’s most famous historians, wrote the History of Rome. • Many modern European languages spoken today are based on Latin, the language of Rome. • The Greek doctor Galen brought Greek medical ideas to Rome. (pages 303–305)
Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.) • Ptolemy was a famous scientist who studied and mapped the stars. • Engineers created an advanced road system and aqueducts that provided water. (pages 303–305)
Life in Ancient Rome How did the historians Livy and Tacitus differ? Livy celebrated Rome’s greatness. Tacitus did not regard Roman culture positively. He felt the Romans were losing the values that made them strong and that the emperors had taken people’s freedom.
Life in Ancient Rome Daily Life in Rome • Rome was one of the largest cities in the ancient world. • The Forum was in the center of Rome and served as a marketplace and public square. • Wealthy Romans lived in large, fine homes. • Poorer people lived in apartment buildings of stone and wood. (pages 306–310)
Life in Ancient Rome Daily Life in Rome (cont.) • Because of high rent, most people could not afford large homes. • The government provided free grain and sporting shows, such as chariot races and gladiator contests. • Gladiators were men who fought animals and each other. • Roman families were large, including young and married children, other relatives, and enslaved servants. (pages 306–310)
Life in Ancient Rome Daily Life in Rome (cont.) • The paterfamilias was the man who headed the family. • Wealthy children—boys and girls—received an education through hired tutors. • Some boys went to school. • A boy became a man between ages 14 and 16 years. (pages 306–310)
Life in Ancient Rome Daily Life in Rome (cont.) • Girls became adults when they married. • Women had few rights but were influential in the family. (pages 306–310)
Life in Ancient Rome Daily Life in Rome (cont.) • Wealthy women had more freedom than poor women. • Slaves were not uncommon in the Roman Empire. • Slaves suffered many hardships and were treated poorly. • Sometimes slaves revolted against the Romans. (pages 306–310)
Life in Ancient Rome Daily Life in Rome (cont.) • Spartacus was a gladiator who led a slave revolt. • Romans worshipped many gods and goddesses. • As the Roman Empire grew, the Romans conquered people of other religions. • They were allowed to worship freely as long as they did not threaten the Roman government. (pages 306–310)
Life in Ancient Rome How did the population of slaves grow during the time of the Roman Empire? As Rome took over more lands, they captured and enslaved more people.
Life in Ancient Rome What were some of Ptolemy’s scientific achievements? He mapped more than 1,000 stars and studied the motions of the planets.
Life in Ancient Rome How were the Roman and Greek religions similar? The Romans adopted Greek gods and gave them Roman names.
Life in Ancient Rome Analyze Explain the importance of the language of the Romans. Answers should be based on the text.
Life in Ancient Rome Describe Describe the education of Roman children. Boys in rich families learned reading, writing, and rhetoric. Girls stayed at home to learn reading, writing, and how to manage households.
Life in Ancient Rome Conclude The Romans borrowed ideas from other people. Do you think our culture today borrows ideas from other peoples? Explain your answer. Answers will vary.
Life in Ancient Rome Make a list using the following headings. List several facts under each one to summarize the chapter. The Arts Science and Engineering Family Life Slavery Religion
The Fall of Rome Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section chronicles the decline and fall of the Roman Empire and discusses the empire’s important legacy.
The Fall of Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Poor leadership, a declining economy, and attacks by Germanic tribes weakened the Roman Empire. • Rome finally fell when invaders swept through the empire during the A.D. 400’s. • Rome passed on many achievements in government, law, language, and the arts.
The Fall of Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Constantinople (KAHN·STAN·tuhn·OH·puhl) Meeting People • Diocletian (DY·uh·KLEE·shuhn) • Constantine (KAHN·stuhn·TEEN) • Theodosius (THEE·uh·DOH·shuhs) • Alaric (A·luh·rihk) • Odoacer (OH·duh·WAY·suhr)
The Fall of Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • plague (PLAYG) • inflation (ihn·FLAY·shuhn) • barter (BAHR·tuhr) • reform (rih·FAWRM)
The Fall of Rome Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 317 of your textbook. Show the events that led up to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The Fall of Rome The Decline of Rome • After Aurelius’s death, Commodus and the Severans ruled Rome. • After the Severans ended, Rome’s leadership grew weak, and the government grew corrupt. • With a weak government, the economy worsened. • A plague, or a disease that spreads widely, broke out and killed many people. (pages 318–320)
The Fall of Rome The Decline of Rome (cont.) • Inflation, or rapidly increasing prices, occurred because money became less valuable. • Invaders began pushing into the empire’s territory, and the Roman government could not pay Roman soldiers. • Emperor Diocletian tried to establish reforms that would improve the political situation. (pages 318–320)
The Fall of Rome The Decline of Rome (cont.) • Emperor Constantine tried to stop the empire’s decline. • He moved the capital city to Byzantium, and the city later became known as Constantinople. (pages 318–320)
The Fall of Rome How did inflation occur? The government put less gold in its coins to create more money to pay soldiers. People learned that the coins did not have as much gold in them, so they did not value the coins as highly.
The Fall of Rome Rome Falls • Theodosius became emperor after Constantine’s death. • Theodosius split the empire into two separate empires: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. • The Visigoths feared the Huns and asked Rome for protection. • In exchange, Rome required the Visigoths to be loyal to them. (pages 322–324)
The Fall of Rome Rome Falls (cont.) • The Visigoths rebelled against the Romans and beat the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople. • More Germanic groups invaded Roman territory. (pages 322–324)
The Fall of Rome Rome Falls (cont.) • The Visigoth leader Alaric and his soldiers captured the city of Rome and burned it. (pages 322–324)
The Fall of Rome Rome Falls (cont.) • The Vandals overpowered Rome’s territories in Spain and northern Africa. • Then they entered Rome and destroyed buildings. • Odoacer was a Germanic leader who took control of Rome’s government from the emperor Romulus Augustulus. • This event marked the end of the Western Roman Empire. (pages 322–324)
The Fall of Rome Rome Falls (cont.) • A band of Visigoths killed Odoacer and set up a kingdom in Italy. • The Eastern Roman Empire continued to prosper after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. • It became known as the Byzantine Empire. (pages 322–324)
The Fall of Rome Why did the Visigoths rebel against the Romans? Although the Romans agreed to protect the Visigoths, they treated them badly. The Romans charged the Visigoths higher prices for food and kidnapped and enslaved many of them.
The Fall of Rome The Legacy of Rome • The law and government of the United States today is influenced by the laws and government of the ancient Romans. • The alphabet of the Latin language is used through the Western world today. • Many European languages stemmed from Latin. • Many English words come from Latin. (pages 325–326)
The Fall of Rome The Legacy of Rome (cont.) • Western architecture uses styles of the Romans, such as domes and arches. • Christianity began in the Roman Empire. (pages 325–326)
The Fall of Rome What ideas in the U.S. legal system came from the Roman system? We believe that all people are created equal, that people are innocent until proven guilty, that judges should be fair, and that the best form of government is a republic made up of equal citizens.
The Fall of Rome What social problems helped cause the empire’s decline? dishonest officials and a decline in respect for Roman values; widespread slavery; the people stopped serving in government and paying taxes; fewer people were educated
The Fall of Rome Why did the Roman government use Germanic warriors in its army? The Romans used Germanic warriors to help defend its borders.