Using the Minimum Standards in Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene Promotion (WASH) 2.2 • WASH • Hygiene promotion • Water supply • Excreta disposal • Vector control • Solid waste management • Drainage
WASH standard 1: WASH programme design and implementation “WASH needs of the affected population are met and users are involved in the design, management and maintenance of the facilities where appropriate.” MSF water and sanitation team (MSF photo) (please see page 89 of the 2011 Edition)
Hygiene promotion standard 1: Hygiene promotion implementation “Affected men, women and children of all ages are aware of key public health risks and are mobilised to adopt measures to prevent the deterioration in hygienic conditions and to use and maintain the facilities provided.” UNICEF - 2011 (please see page 91 of the 2011 Edition)
Hygiene promotion standard 2: Identification and use of hygiene items “The disaster-affected population has access to and is involved in identifying and promoting the use of hygiene items to ensure personal hygiene, health, dignity and well-being .” ICRC photo (please see page 94 of the 2011 Edition)
Water supply standard 1: access and water quantity • “All people have safe and equitable access to a sufficient quantity of water for drinking, cooking and personal and domestic hygiene. Public water points are sufficiently close to households to enable use of the minimum water requirement.” Doctors Without Borders photo (please see page 97)
Water supply standard 2: water quality • “Water is palatable, and of sufficient quantity to be drunk and used for cooking and personal and domestic hygiene without causing risk to health.” (please see page 100) OXFAM photo Q. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
Water supply standard 3: water facilities • “People have adequate facilities to collect, store and use sufficient quantities of water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene and to ensure that drinking water remains safe until it is consumed” Overland Solutions.com photo (please see page 103) Q. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
Excreta disposal standard 1: Environment free from human faeces • “The living environment in general and specifically the habitat, food production areas, public centres and surroundings of drinking water sources are free from human faecal contamination.” (please see page 105) Am. Red Cross photo - Brian Hatchell Q. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
Excreta disposal standard 2: Appropriate and adequate toilet facilities • “People have adequate, appropriate and acceptable toilet facilities, sufficiently close to their dwellings, to allow rapid, safe and secure access at all times, day and night.” (please see page 107) American Red Cross photo - Brian Hatchell Q. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
Vector control standard 1: individual and family protection “All disaster-affected people have the knowledge and the means to protect themselves from disease and nuisance vectors that are likely to cause a significant risk to health or well-being.” Togolese Red Cross volunteers demonstrate how to properly use an insecticide-treated bednet - Canadian Red Cross photo by Marko Kokic (please see page 111)
Vector control standard 2: physical, environmental and chemical protection measures “The environment where the disaster-affected people are placed does not expose them to disease-causing and nuisance vectors, and those vectors are kept to a reduced level where possible.” (please see page 114)
Vector control standard 3: chemical control safety “Chemical vector control measures are carried out in a manner that ensures that staff, the disaster-affected population and the local environment are adequately protected, and that avoids creating resistance to the substances used.” larviciding photo from www.chesapeake.va.us/.../ (please see page 116)
Solid waste management standard 1: collection and disposal “The affected population has an environment not littered by solid waste, including medical waste, and has the means to dispose of their domestic waste conveniently and effectively.”
Drainage standard 1: drainage work “People have an environment in which health risks and other risks posed by water erosion and standing water, including storm water, flood water, domestic wastewater and wastewater from medical facilities, are minimised.” (please see page 121) Photo from www.tamilnet.com
Visualizing the indicators… Hygiene Promotion: • Key risks are identified • Programmes include mechanisms for participation • All groups have safe and equitable access • WASH staff communicate clearly and can answer community questions • There is a system in place for maintenance and management (please see page 89 of the 2011 Edition) Q. How many hygiene promoters/community mobilisers should be provided in a camp situation? (page 93)
Visualizing the indicators… Hygiene Items: • Everyone has access to hygiene items…(soap, water containers) • Women and girls of menstruating age are provided with appropriate menstrual hygiene items based on consultations about appropriate materials • Everyone has access to information and training (250g/month page 95) (please see page 94 of the 2011 Edition) Q. How much soap should be provided per person in a camp situation? (page 95)
Visualizing the indicators… WATER SUPPLY: • Water Supply – average of 15 liters of water per person per day • The maximum distance from any household to nearest water point is 500 meters • Queuing time no more than 30 minutes (please see page 97 of the 2011 Edition)
R = 500m There is at least 1 water point for 250 people* The maximum distance from any shelter to nearest water point is 500 meters (please see page 99 of the 2011 Edition)
Water Supply - “average use is at least 15 liters of water per person per day” So… 20,000 people would need 20,000 X 15 liters = 300,000 liters per day. This amounts to a storage container of 300 cubic meters. That is to say a cube of water 6m x 7m x7m.
What does this mean for planning and programming? 300 cu. m. =… 10 X 30,000 liter bladder tanks or 30 X 10 m ton water tankers
? What issues or questions must you investigate about this situation if you want to evaluate the project using the Sphere Project Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response? • Children from Dos Puertas, El Salvador drawing water from newly installed tapstands. (Tank behind is 10,000 liter capacity.) Part of earthquake emergency response.Photo: Rachel Stabb/ OXFAM
Oxfam type tanks - typical sizes, volumes Assuming these tanks can each be filled once daily, how many people can each tank support in an emergency camp? Assume working volume to be 90% of nominal volume. 6.4 m 2.5 m 3.0 m 2.3 m 1.5 m 2.3 m 10,500 liters 45,000 liters 70,000 liters 95,000 liters nominal storage capacities
Some Sphere water quality indicators: • No fecal coliforms per 100ml at delivery point • residual free chlorine @ 0.5 mg per liter • turbidity below 5 NTU • No outbreaks of water-related disease (please see page 100 of the 2011 Edition) Q. What does all of that mean?
What in the world are Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU’s)? They are the units we use when we measure Turbidity. The term Nephelometric refers to the way the instrument estimates how light is scattered by suspended particulate material in the water. This measurement generally provides a very good correlation with the concentration of particles in the water that affect clarity. http:// lake access.org/russ/turbidity.htm
Comparative examples of effect of varying NTUs from different causes http://lake access.org/russ/turbidity.htm
Some water use facilities indicators: • 2 containers for water collection of 10-20 liters each per household (narrow neck and or cover) • 1 water storage vessel of 20 liters per household (narrow neck and or cover) • separate bathing cubicles for men and women (where communal) • 1 clothes washing basin per 100 people where communal (provide separate private laundering areas for women only)
What’s right, What’s wrong? Why? CDC photo UNICEF photo: S. Noorani Locally available, 20-liter plastic jerry cans, used in A large-scale implementation project funded by the CARE/CDC Health Initiative that is being incorporated into CARE’s Programme MAHAVITA Afghan children collect water from a hand pump provided by UNICEF in the Naser Bagh refugee settlement in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Emergency tanker, bladder tank, and tapstand. What Sphere indicators would apply in the design, layout, purchasing or installation of these components?
Some Sphere excreta disposal indicators: • Environment is free from human faeces • Maximum 20 people per toilet • Use by households or segregated by sex • No more than 50m from dwellings • Latrines and soakaways (in most soils) are at least 30 meters away from any groundwater source, and bottom of pits at least 1.5 meters above water table. waterdot.org
Explain this picture - what does it tell you? New Shamshatoo Camp, Peshawar, Pakistan, August, 2001 - InterWorks photo If there are 35,000 people in this camp, how many latrines are needed? Where do you put them in the camp?
Some layout and accessibility and vector control indicators Latrine 50 m Trash Bin Per each 10 households Communal Garbage Dump/Pit 100 m 1 – 2 km from malarial breeding sites 2011 Sphere Edition
Some Sphere solid waste indicators: • All households have access to a refuse container and are no more than 100 meters from a communal refuse pit. • One 100 liter refuse container is available for every 10 families, where domestic waste is not buried on site. InterWorks photo
Some Sphere site drainage indicators: • Areas around dwellings and water points are kept free of standing wastewater, and stormwater drains are kept clear • Shelters, paths and water and sanitation facilities are not flooded or eroded by water Kabul, Afghanistan, 2003 – InterWorks photo
Camp Hope, Albania, after rains of 22 June, 1999 What’s right, what’s wrong, and why? Boys at water tap stand, Albania
Conclusions…. These standards and their supporting activities and indicators illustrate an integrated system of analysis of needs, provision of water, and management of waste that should be well-coordinated if public health is to be preserved. Each part supports and is supported by the others. • WASH • Hygiene promotion • Water supply • Excreta disposal • Vector control • Solid waste management • Drainage