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TRANSCULTURAL COMPETENCE: HOW DO WE GET THERE?

TRANSCULTURAL COMPETENCE: HOW DO WE GET THERE?

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TRANSCULTURAL COMPETENCE: HOW DO WE GET THERE?

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  1. TRANSCULTURAL COMPETENCE: HOW DO WE GET THERE? SUSAN KNIGHT CENTRAL MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY ACTFL 2013 Session # 1635375

  2. Self check • What percent of your class time is devoted to teaching culture? What percent of your testing? • Are products, practices and perspectives dealt with equally? • How motivated are you to maintain your own culture knowledge? How do you do this? (Where does your information come from?) • What are barriers to keeping abreast of cultural changes?

  3. Do you have any of these as student objectives? • critical thinking • global understanding • cross-cultural perspectives • transcultural competence

  4. SOME BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:DO WE AGREE?? • STEREOTYPES ABOUND • A LACK OF INTERCULTURAL CONTACT CAN RESULT IN FEAR, MISUNDERSTANDINGS, CONFLICT, ETHNIC STRIFE, HATE AND GENOCIDE (Fantini) • IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW ALL OF THE CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF EVEN YOUR OWN CULTURE OR THOSE OF YOUR SUBGROUP

  5. “There is a crying need for understanding and mutual acceptance among the world’s people and until we can see an issue or practice from another’s point of view, there will be no mutual understanding.” (Omaggio) Open mindedness involves an active disposition to welcome points of view hitherto alien (Dewey)

  6. HANVEY’S STAGES OF CROSS-CULTURAL AWARENESS 1. CULTURE SEEN AS STEREOTYPED, SUPERFICIAL 2. FRUSTRATION WITH CULTURE 3. ACCEPTS NEW CULTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOR RATHER THAN WRONG (achievable goal for high school) • UNDERSTANDS HOW MEMBERS OF TARGET CULTURE FEEL (college students should strive for this)

  7. SOME BASIC GOALS: HELP DEVELOP IN STUDENTS: • AN OPENNESS TO LEARNING NEW ASPECTS OF THEIR OWN AND OTHER CULTURES • A CURIOSITY ABOUT OTHER PERSPECTIVES • A REALIZATION THAT LIVING = LEARNING • TOOLS OR A PROCESS BY WHICH TO ENHANCE THAT LEARNING

  8. But….. HOW IS THIS DONE? HOW MIGHT THESE GOALS BE REACHED IN A CLASSROOM? 1) Examination of a process model2) EXAMINE Culture lessons in 3 settings based on this modela) Projects/tasks in the FL classrooms b) Examples from university classes/instructors cited for their ability to change attitudes c) Study abroad tasks

  9. TWO BASIC THEORIES/MODELS • Information-acquisition approach – teacher provides students information and facts. • Constructivist/process oriented approach- students construct their views of culture via social and communicative interaction. *-assumes a period of disequilibrium; the construction of new meanings from old ones

  10. Past research on this model • Wright (2000). – used both approaches to cultural learning with college students learning German. Both had same factual information; but 2nd group had added tasks: • Pose a problem or topic leading to confusion • Encourage students to address problem themselves first (teacher only served as mediator) • Students shared opinions – put reasoning in words • Probing questions with wait time so they could think about answer • Opportunity to reflect on topic in relationship to their attitudes • Abrams (2002) produced similar results

  11. Deardorff (2006) and Bryran (1997)- first step in developing intercultural competence begins with examination of attitudes. Morgan (1993) did a comprehensive review of the research and theory on attitude changes with regard to FL classroom learning and concluded that four aspects need to be considered when attempting to change student attitudes, namely: (1) awareness of their own cultural attitudes. (2) active student involvement with controversial materials (3) novel classroom activities, (4) struggle with complex material  own conclusions,

  12. Example of Classroom Research based on Morgan’s model • TOPIC CHOICE- illegal immigration • PRE- AND POST QUESTIONNAIRE- of attitudes • SELECTION OF MATERIALS- various viewpoints from various perspectives (primary information source is not instructor—articles; video) • CONSTRUCTION OF VARIOUS STUDENT TASKS

  13. Yo Chica Rosa Enrique Yo Chico Film Arobics “Cultural Comparisons” • Other tasks: pre-listening; maps; comprehension; Z-charts; values clarification via imaginate, debates, etc.

  14. RESULTS • QUANTITATIVE (PRE- AND POST-QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS) • QUALITATIVE (FREE WRITES, OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS, DEBATES, ETC)

  15. Questionnaire results: Major attitude changes • 2/3rds of questions answered were significantly different in pre/post test • showing greater understanding of immigrant perspective

  16. ITEMS WITH GREATEST CHANGE • Illegal immigrants often suffer poor working conditions even though they are now in the US • Many of these jobs are dangerous in one way or another • Americans do benefit from Hispanic undocumented laborers • Illegal immigrants do face discrimination in the U.S. • Not all who live in the U.S. should speak English • I understand how one might illegally cross into another country and why someone might do so.

  17. Student comments • Enjoyed project • At times I wanted to be on the other side because that is how I feel now… • Wish there was a sequel to the movie • Liked the games and activities we did in class • I understand this situation better

  18. Goal of project • Not to indoctrinate, but to show another perspective and let the students decide. • Becoming aware of our own biases and helping students recognize theirs are first important steps in teaching for cultural understand in our classrooms (Omaggio)

  19. AATSP presentation by Regina Casale Longwood Central School District, Middle Island NY • Used the film Deputized, (2012) examining the hate crime that resulted in murder of Ecuadorian immigrant Marcelo Lucero in Long Island • PEW research center info - 65% of hate crimes against Latinos; 35% all other races and women • Examples of pre- and post-viewing activities

  20. ANOTHER CLASSROOM EXAMPLE Role plays using a model proposed by Smith and Otero (1977) –2 Americans traveling through imaginary countries of Crony, Ord, Fondi, Dandi or Lindi. They lost their money and need to ask natives for help. • When Fondis agree with something they frown and look down; when they disagree, they smile and nod their heads. • Dandis stand 12 inches or closer to people when talking to them. • Cronies would not listen to a male if he asks for a favor because females decide everything important.

  21. COMPARING PERSPECTIVES: BEGIN WITH YOUR CLASS

  22. *clothing *tipping customs *degree of eye contact * Food *gestures *methods of worship *works of art *personal distance ~~~~practices~~~~ ~~products~~~ * * * * ~~~~~ perspectives ~~~~~ *views on equality *rules of politeness *religious beliefs *time management *relationship with nature *concept of beauty (adapted from Maximizing Study Abroad, p. 47)

  23. PREPONDERANCE OF BELIEF Human beings Nature controls Control nature/life Human beings 10<……….…………5…………….…….>1 (Edward C. Stewart, American Cultural Pattern: A Cross Cultural Perspective)

  24. (Edward C. Stewart, American Cultural Pattern: A Cross Cultural Perspective)

  25. Time comparisons:to chart • U.S. --“Time is money!” • Spanish -- “He who rushes, arrives first at the grave.” • Japanese -- “When in a hurry, take the roundabout route” and “The more haste--the less speed.” • The Arabs caution -- “Haste is the devil’s work and patience is from the Merciful (Allah).” • The Chinese long-term perspective -- “Drips of water wear through stone” and “Feather by feather the goose is plucked.” • Ecuador -- “Little by little one walks far.” • Zaire --“The peanuts don’t grow until the rains come.” • Ethiopia --“If you wait long enough, even an egg will walk (the chicken will hatch).”

  26. Spanish 101 – ARTIFACTSmoving from product to practice to perspective

  27. What do you feel seeing this person?

  28. STUDY II: EXAMINATION OF UNIVERSITY COURSES SELECTED AS ENHANCING PERSPECTIVE OF THE “OTHER” • Chairs of departments identified courses and professors • Courses were examined for components of the model. • Evaluation of syllabi and tasks assigned • Follow up discussion with professor

  29. Examination of 25 syllabi for examples of Morgan’s 4 points: • Awareness of student’s own cultural attitudes • Active student involvement with controversial materials • Novel classroom activities • Struggle with complex material  own conclusions (content that is reflected upon and transformed; personalized not memorized)

  30. PRELIMINARY RESULTS (2) Discussion with professors regarding course for examples of Morgan’s 4 points: • awareness of their own cultural attitudes (14/25) • active student involvement with controversial materials (21/25) • novel classroom activities (15/25) • struggle with complex material  own conclusions (19/25)

  31. Philosophy 118 – Moral problems Teeter-totter model using “yes /no” questions. • formulate your question clearly • give the best reasons in favor of “yes” answer and then best for “no” • weigh up the reasons • accept the answer that has the most going for it (i.e., weighs more) Worked through examples in class (e.g., Tracy Latimer; death penalty; euthanasia – the Dutch laws versus the Oregon laws )

  32. TESOL • Uses books (e.g., Guadalupe Valdes’ book Con respeto) to have students do value comparisons for different cultures • What does it mean to be “successful” in different cultures? • Makes students find articles on controversial issues both pro and con. Must be from quality source. They must write a page summary of each, and then a 2-page summary of their position based on the facts.

  33. French 591: France at War in 20th Century * Began by reflecting on their own war knowledge, feelings, and experiences *Blackboard readings from FRN newspapers * Sent professor 3 questions from articles *Film clips of personal experiences in trenches, in landmine, etc. *Class visitor who was in France during Algerian War *Final reflection paper (served as pre-post test of sorts when no good tests)

  34. Political Science 275: Great Political Thinkers • Question political philosophy seeks to answer = How should we live together? What is the best way for an individual to live? • While many questions cannot be answered, we should not let this lead us into indifference or intellectual laziness about answers that have been given; we must be willing to think about them seriously and consider their strength and weaknesses. • Some answers are better than others; if not, how could we praise Martin Luther King or condemn Hitler for their beliefs and actions • TASKS: debates-- student prepares 2-page essay stating his/her position and listing 2 or 3 points made by one of authors in debate

  35. Culture and civilization of Latin America Have students read a about the war between Mexico and U.S. in the 1800 from a history book for Mexican children (sextogrado) Have them read the same history from a U.S. viewpoint. Discussion:

  36. Religion 241. Islam – an Introduction Task: Write 3 critical book reviews of books read using 3 contexts: • your encounter with them based on your own experience • your critical reflection on the text • at least 3 learning events among your classroom experiences

  37. Sociology 323 – Racism and Inequality • Students participate in his project to introduce at-risk high school students to higher ed. • Students served as mentors to high school students who did not even consider going to college.

  38. SPN 201: Intermediate SPN • Task 1 - Make a list of food items that your family usually eats in a typical week. Where do you get these items? What comes “pre-prepared”? What meals do you eat together? How do your family’s eating patterns reflect the value that your family puts on different activities? • Task 2 – Share lists with 3 classmates. How similar • Task 3 – Look at photographs from Hungry Planet: What the World Eats

  39. Caveats • Must be sure that the materials, tasks and presentation are not “indoctrination.” • Lack of good psychometrical measurement tools with established statistical norms for changes in critical thinking, attitude, or values (Follman) Example: Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory- When I meet people who are different from me, I expect to like them.

  40. Setting guidelines… • “You are encouraged to introduce into the discussion any relevant topic that you think is interesting and important if the rest of us seem to be overlooking it” • “Many of the ideas that we will consider are controversial, and you will probably have strong feelings and opinions about some of them. I encourage you to offer your opinions and add to the discussion. However, personal attacks and abusive language will not be tolerated. People can sincerely differ with you without being stupid, dishonest or malicious.”

  41. Study Abroad = the solution ?? • Study abroad in itself does not insure increase TL fluency or intercultural competence • Findings from: Knight, Susan and Barbara Schmidt-Rinehart. (2010). Exploring conditions to enhance student/host-family interaction abroad. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 43, No. 1, 64-80.

  42. Conversation tasks with families based on topics 1) Mi preparación: • Vocabulario util • Mi punto de vista cultural • Preguntas para la familia 2) Información de la familia (la entrevista/apuntes) 3) Evaluación de la interacción Followed by in-class conversation

  43. gracias thanks danke merci Mahalonuiloa Arigatougozaimasu. ありがとうございます。

  44. TRANSCULTURAL COMPETENCE: HOW DO WE GET THERE? SUSAN KNIGHT knigh1sm@cmich.edu Power point presentation can be found at: ACTFL Online Community- Session 1635375 http://www.chsbs.cmich.edu/susan_knight/

  45. What are sources for showing our students another perspective? • Movies/film • Books and articles • Guest speakers • Service learning • Study abroad • Internet partners • other?