World War 2 Nathan B. Gilson Southwest Middle School 7th Grade Social Studies
Causes of World War 2 1. Treaty of Versailles • The biggest cause of World War 2 was World War 1 • Specifically how Germany was treated after World War 1 • Reparations • Very small military • Very small navy • No U-boats • No Battleships • Gave up land to other countries • Can’t join up with Austria anymore
Causes of World War 2 2. Fascism • A government type based around radical nationalism with a single leader (dictatorship) • Both Italy and Germany accepted Fascist leaders who very strongly believed that they should be the most powerful countries in the world. • Benito Mussolini (Italy) • Adolf Hitler (Germany)
Causes of World War 2 3. Appeasement • Idea that a lot of the demands of the Treaty of Versailles weren’t fair to ask Germany to do anyway, so when Germany started to break the rules, England didn’t try to punish them for it. • March 1938—Hitler annexes Austria • September 1938—England gives Hitler part of Czechoslovakia • Nobody asked Czechoslovakia or Russia (their closest ally) if this was ok. • March 1939—England and France build up militaries because Hitler is threatening Poland, which they are not willing to give back to Germany.
Causes of World War 2 4. Failure of the League of Nations • The League of Nations was supposed to stop large-scale wars from happening in Europe again by putting pressure on countries to do what they are supposed to. • If a country does what they are not supposed to… When a country does something wrong, countries refuse to trade with them. The country wants the trade, so they stop what they are doing and go back to what they should be doing.
World war 2—at a glance • Axis (Germany, Italy, and Japan) vs. Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia (1941), US (1941), Canada, Australia, and others) • Involved over 59 countries • Lasted 6 years • Over 60,000,000 people died during World War 2. • About 10% of the German population died in World War 2. About 14% of the Russian population died (between 18,000,000 and 24,000,000). • About 1% of the British, Italian, and French populations died. Only about 0.32% of the United States population died.
World War 2—Interesting facts • 12,000 Heavy bombers shot down • 40,000 men served on U-boats. 30,000 never returned. • Japanese Ace HiroyoshiNishizawa shot down over 80 planes • The Russians destroyed over 500 German aircraft by ramming them. They cleared minefields by marching over them. • 84 German Generals were executed by Hitler • The youngest US serviceman was 12 years old. He was wounded and given a dishonorable discharge for lying about his age. • Over 100,000 Allied bomber crewmen were killed over Europe. • About 6 million Polish people were killed by the Germans. Around 10-15 million Chinese were killed by the Japanese.
World War 2 1939 • August 23rd—USSR (Russia) and Germany sign non-aggression pact • August 25th—Britain and Poland sign mutual defense alliance • September 1st—Germany invades Poland • September 3rd—Britain, France, Australia, and New Zealand declare war on Germany---World War 2 begins • September 5th—US declares neutrality • September 17th—Russia invades Poland
World War 2--1940 • April 9th—Germany invades Denmark and Norway • May 10th—Germany invades France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Winston Churchill becomes leader of Great Britain. • Winston Churchill--England • One of the greatest wartime leaders in world history • 11/30/1874 to 1/24/1965 (Age 90) • Opposed Chamberlain’s appeasement strategy, wanted to fight Hitler as soon as he broke the Treaty of Versailles.
World War 2—1940 • June 22nd—France surrenders to Germany • September 7th—German “Blitz” begins • About 4 months of bombing major British cities (especially London) • Intended to scare British people and break their resolve • Also weaken defenses so that Operation Sea Lion (Hitler’s invasion plan for England) could be successful.
World war 2--1941 • March 11—President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) signs the Lend-Lease Act which enables the US to let their allies borrow war equipment • June 22—Germany executes Operation Barbarossa and attacks the Soviet Union • July 26th—USA stops all trade and negotiations with Japan • September 1st—All Jews in Nazi controlled lands have to wear yellow stars • December 7th—Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor • December 8th—USA and Britain declare war on Japan • December 11th—Hitler declares war on the USA
World war 2--1942 • July 22nd—First Jews exported to extermination camps • August 12th—Stalin and Churchill meet in Moscow • Joseph Stalin—Soviet Union • Leader of the Communist party (1922-1952) • Leader of Soviet Union (1941-1953) • Napoleon from Animal Farm • Murdered over twice as many Jews as Hitler
World war 2--1943 • May 13th—Allied troops accept surrender of German and Italian troops in North Africa • June 11th—All Jewish ghettos are eliminated and all Jews sent to concentration camps. • October 1st—Allies occupy Naples…Italy mostly liberated from Mussolini • October 13th—Italy declares war on Germany
World War 2--1944 • January 6th—Soviet troops advance into Poland • June 6th—D-Day • Largest amphibious assault in world history • Combined attack of US, British, and Canadian Forces • Massive casualties inflicted by both Germans and Allied Forces • June 13th—First German V-1 Rocket launch • V-1 rockets were later used as the basis for Soviet and US Space Programs • October 30th—Last use of gas chamber at Auschwitz • December 16th-17th—Battle of the Bulge
World War 2--1945 • February 4th-11th—Yalta Conference • Stalin, FDR, and Churchill meet to discuss how Germany will be controlled after the war ends. • Sets the stage for the USSR to keep all of the countries east of Germany (Estonia, Latvia, Lituania, Czechoslovakia, Ukraine, Georgia, etc.) • April 12th—FDR dies. Harry Truman becomes President of USA. • April 28th—Mussolini is captured and Hanged • April 30th—Adolf Hitler commits suicide • May 8th—Victory in Europe Day (Germany surrenders) • July 16th—First atomic bomb successfully tested • August 6th—Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan • August 8th—Soviets declare war on Japan • August 9th—Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan
World War 2--Effects 1. United Nations • An international organization that makes laws that govern how different nations interact with one another • Able to draw troop resources from member nations • Able to require member nations to impose economic sanctions on violating nations.
World War 2--Effects 2. US and Russian occupation • US establishes permanent military bases in Japan and Germany • Berlin (German capital) is split between East and West Berlin. • Berlin Wall is constructed to separate the city. • Germany is also split between East and West Germany • East Germany is controlled by Russia (becomes communist) • West Germany controlled by US, Great Britain, and France (becomes Democracy)
World war 2--Effects 3. Rise of the Soviet Union • Russia holds massive amounts of land that were captured from the Nazis • Yalta conference allows them to keep much of that land • Eastern Europe all become communist and controlled by Russia • Leads to the beginning of the Cold War
World War 2--Effects 4. Rise of new technology • Atomic weapons are developed. • Only 9 countries are currently capable of developing Nuclear weapons. • US, China, Great Britain, Russia, France, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Isreal • Japan is the only time that a nuclear weapon has been used • Airforce • Aircraft become primary weapons used in warfare • Aircraft carriers become primary naval ships used (instead of Subs or battleships) • Rockets • Rockets and missiles are developed. Leads to space programs
World War 2--Effects 5. End of Imperialism • Colonies take too many resources from mother country to protect during World War 1 and 2. • Economies no longer acquire resources in the same way. • Most former colonies of European countries are granted independence in the 30 years following World War 2.
World War 2--effects 6. Creation of the Nation-State of Israel • Over 6 million Jews killed by Hitler, and many more by Stalin. Many wanted to leave Europe. • In 1947, the United Nations came up with a plan to give land in Palestine to the Jews • Israel was eliminated as a country in 70AD by the Roman Empire • Conquered by Muslims and Arabs and controlled by them for centuries • Traded back and force during the Crusades in 1000-1300 AD between European control and Arab control. • Controlled by Arabs and Ottoman Empire until World War 1. • Led to current tension between Jews and Arabs living in Palestine.
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