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MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT MECHANICS

MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT MECHANICS

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MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT MECHANICS

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  1. MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS ANDFLIGHT MECHANICS Introduction to Finite Wings and Induced Drag Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Florida Institute of Technology D. R. Kirk

  2. AIRFOILS VERSUS WINGS • Upper surface (upper side of wing): low pressure • Recall discussion on exactly why this is physically • Recall discussion on how to show this mathematically Low Pressure Low Pressure

  3. AIRFOILS VERSUS WINGS • Upper surface (upper side of wing): low pressure • Lower surface (underside of wing): high pressure Low Pressure Low Pressure High Pressure High Pressure

  4. AIRFOILS VERSUS WINGS • Upper surface (upper side of wing): low pressure • Lower surface (underside of wing): high pressure • Flow always desires to go from high pressure to low pressure • Flow ‘wraps’ around wing tips Low Pressure Low Pressure High Pressure High Pressure

  5. FINITE WINGS Front View Wing Tip Vortices

  6. FINITE WINGS

  7. FINITE WINGS

  8. FINITE WINGS

  9. AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 587 • American Airlines Flight 587 crashed into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens in New York City shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport on November 12, 2001. This was the second deadliest U.S. aviation accident to date. • On November 12, 2001, about 0916:15 eastern standard time, American Airlines flight 587, an Airbus Industries A300-605R, N14053, crashed into a residential area of Belle Harbor, New York, shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica, New York. Flight 587 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight to Las Americas International Airport, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, with 2 flight crewmembers, 7 flight attendants, and 251 passengers aboard the plane. The plane’s vertical stabilizer and rudder separated in flight and were found in Jamaica Bay, about 1 mile north of the main wreckage site. The plane’s engines subsequently separated in flight and were found several blocks north and east of the main wreckage site. All 260 people aboard the plane and 5 people on the ground were killed, and the plane was destroyed by impact forces and a postcrash fire. • The official National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) report of October 26, 2004, stated that the cause of the crash was the overuse of the rudder to counter wake turbulence

  10. AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 587 • The A300-600, which took off just minutes after a Japan Airlines Boeing 747 on the same runway, flew into the larger jet's wake, an area of very turbulent air. The first officer attempted to keep the plane upright with the rudder. The strength of the air flowing against the moving rudder stressed the aircraft's vertical stabilizer and eventually snapped it off entirely, causing the aircraft to lose control and crash. • Investigators were concerned regarding the manner in which the tail fin separated. The tail fin is connected to the fuselage with six attaching points, each set has two sets of nuts, one made out of composite material, another from aluminum which is connected by a titanium bolt, however damage analysis showed the bolts and aluminum lugs were intact but not the composite lugs. There were fears that the composites were faulty because they are used in other areas of the plane including the engine mounting and the wings, however examinations of construction and the materials gave the plane a clean bill of health. • Airbus and American are currently disputing the extent to which the two parties are responsible for the disaster. American charges that the crash was mostly Airbus's fault, because the A300 was designed with unusually sensitive rudder controls. Most aircraft require increased pressure on the rudder pedals to achieve the same amount of rudder control at a higher speed. The Airbus A300 and later A310 do not operate on a fly-by-wire flight control system, instead using conventional mechanical flight controls. The NTSB determined that "because of its high sensitivity, the A300-600 rudder control system is susceptible to potentially hazardous rudder pedal inputs at higher speeds."[3] • Airbus charges that the crash was mostly American's fault, because the airline did not train its pilots properly about the characteristics of the rudder. Aircraft tail fins are designed to withstand full rudder in one direction at maneuvering speed. However, they are not usually designed to withstand an abrupt shift in rudder from one direction to the other. Most American pilots believed that the tail fin could withstand any rudder movement at maneuvering speed.

  11. http://www.ntsb.gov/events/2001/AA587/default.htm

  12. MINIMUM SEPARATION RULES • An aircraft of a lower wake vortex category must not be allowed to take off less than two minutes behind an aircraft of a higher wake vortex category • If the following aircraft does not start its take off roll from the same point as the preceding aircraft, this is increased to three minutes

  13. EXAMPLE: 737 WINGLETS

  14. FINITE WING DOWNWASH • Wing tip vortices induce a small downward component of air velocity near wing by dragging surrounding air with them • Downward component of velocity is called downwash, w Chord line Local relative wind • Two Consequences: • Increase in drag, called induced drag (drag due to lift) • Angle of attack is effectively reduced, aeff as compared with V∞

  15. ANGLE OF ATTACK DEFINITIONS Chord line Relative Wind, V∞ ageometric ageometric: what you see, what you would see in a wind tunnel Simply look at angle between incoming relative wind and chord line This is a case of no wing-tips (infinite wing)

  16. ANGLE OF ATTACK DEFINITIONS Chord line aeffective Local Relative Wind, V∞ aeffective: what the airfoil ‘sees’ locally Angle between local flow direction and chord line Small than ageometric because of downwash The wing-tips have caused this local relative wind to be angled downward

  17. ANGLE OF ATTACK DEFINITIONS ageometric: what you see, what you would see in a wind tunnel Simply look at angle between incoming relative wind and chord line aeffective: what the airfoil ‘sees’ locally Angle between local flow direction and chord line Small than ageometric because of downwash ainduced: difference between these two angles Downwash has ‘induced’ this change in angle of attack

  18. INFINITE WING DESCRIPTION LIFT Relative Wind, V∞ • LIFT is always perpendicular to the RELATIVE WIND • All lift is balancing weight

  19. FINITE WING DESCRIPTION Finite Wing Case • Relative wind gets tilted downward under the airfoil • LIFT is still always perpendicular to the RELATIVE WIND

  20. FINITE WING DESCRIPTION Finite Wing Case Induced Drag, Di • Drag is measured in direction of incoming relative wind (that is the direction that the airplane is flying) • Lift vector is tilted back • Component of L acts in direction parallel to incoming relative wind → results in a new type of drag

  21. 3 PHYSICAL INTERPRETATIONS • Local relative wind is canted downward, lift vector is tilted back so a component of L acts in direction normal to incoming relative wind • Wing tip vortices alter surface pressure distributions in direction of increased drag • Vortices contain rotational energy put into flow by propulsion system to overcome induced drag

  22. INDUCED DRAG: IMPLICATIONS FOR WINGS V∞ Infinite Wing (Appendix D) Finite Wing

  23. HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG • Local flow velocity in vicinity of wing is inclined downward • Lift vector remains perpendicular to local relative wind and is tiled back through an angle ai • Drag is still parallel to freestream • Tilted lift vector contributes a drag component

  24. TOTAL DRAG ON SUBSONIC WING Profile Drag Profile Drag coefficient relatively constant with M∞ at subsonic speeds Also called drag due to lift May be calculated from Inviscid theory: Lifting line theory Look up

  25. INFINITE VERSUS FINITE WINGS High AR Aspect Ratio b: wingspan S: wing area Low AR b

  26. HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG • Calculation of angle ai is not trivial (MAE 3241) • Value of ai depends on distribution of downwash along span of wing • Downwash is governed by distribution of lift over span of wing

  27. HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG • Special Case: Elliptical Lift Distribution (produced by elliptical wing) • Lift/unit span varies elliptically along span • This special case produces a uniform downwash Key Results: Elliptical Lift Distribution

  28. ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION • For a wing with same airfoil shape across span and no twist, an elliptical lift distribution is characteristic of an elliptical wing plan form • Example: Supermarine Spitfire Key Results: Elliptical Lift Distribution

  29. HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG • For all wings in general • Define a span efficiency factor, e (also called span efficiency factor) • Elliptical planforms, e = 1 • The word planform means shape as view by looking down on the wing • For all other planforms, e < 1 • 0.85 < e < 0.99 Goes with square of CL Inversely related to AR Drag due to lift Span Efficiency Factor

  30. DRAG POLAR Total Drag = Profile Drag + Induced Drag { cd

  31. EXAMPLE: U2 VS. F-15 • Cruise at 70,000 ft • Air density highly reduced • Flies at slow speeds, low q∞ → high angle of attack, high CL • U2 AR ~ 14.3 (WHY?) U2 F-15 • Flies at high speed (and lower altitudes), so high q∞ → low angle of attack, low CL • F-15 AR ~ 3 (WHY?)

  32. EXAMPLE: U2 SPYPLANE • Cruise at 70,000 ft • Out of USSR missile range • Air density, r∞, highly reduced • In steady-level flight, L = W • As r∞ reduced, CL must increase (angle of attack must increase) • AR ↑ CD ↓ • U2 AR ~ 14.3 U2 stall speed at altitude is only ten knots (18 km/h) less than its maximum speed

  33. EXAMPLE: F-15 EAGLE • Flies at high speed at low angle of attack → low CL • Induced drag < Profile Drag • Low AR, Low S

  34. U2 CRASH DETAILS • http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/dl/U2Incident/u2documents.html • NASA issued a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had “gone missing” north of Turkey • I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot was alive and well… and now just look how many silly things [the Americans] have said.”

  35. NASA U2

  36. MYASISHCHEV M-55 "MYSTIC" HIGH ALTITUDE RECONNAISANCE AIRCRAFT

  37. WHY HIGH AR ON PREDATOR?

  38. AIRBUS A380 / BOEING 747 COMPARISON • Wingspan: 79.8 m • AR: 7.53 • GTOW: 560 T • Wing Loading: GTOW/b2: 87.94 • Wingspan: 68.5 m • AR: 7.98 • GTOW: 440 T • Wing Loading: GTOW/b2: 93.77

  39. AIRPORT ACCOMODATIONS • Airplanes must fit into 80 x 80 m box Proposed changes to JFK

  40. WINGLETS, FENCES, OR NO WINGLETS? • Quote from ‘Airborne with the Captain’ website • http://www.askcaptainlim.com/blog/index.php?catid=19 • “Now, to go back on your question on why the Airbus A380 did not follow the Airbus A330/340 winglet design but rather more or less imitate the old design “wingtip fences” of the Airbus A320. Basically winglets help to reduce induced drag and improve performance (also increases aspect ratio slightly). However, the Airbus A380 has very large wing area due to the large wingspan that gives it a high aspect ratio.So, it need not have to worry about aspect ratio but needs only to tackle the induced drag problem. Therefore, it does not require the winglets, but merely “wingtip fences” similar to those of the Airbus A320.” • What do you think of this answer? • What are other trade-offs for winglets vs. no winglets? • Consider Boeing 777 does not have winglets

  41. WHY A LIFT DISTRIBUTION?CHORD MAY VARY IN LENGTH Thinner wing near tip delay onset of high-speed compressibility effects Retain aileron control

  42. WHY A LIFT DISTRIBUTION?SHAPE OF AIRFOIL MAY VARY ALONG WING F-111 NACA 64A209 NACA 64A210

  43. WHY A LIFT DISTRIBUTION?WING MAY BE TWISTED

  44. P&W / G.E. GP7000 FAMILY

  45. THINK ABOUT WING LOADING: W/b2 • Cruise at 70,000 ft • Air density highly reduced • Flies at slow speeds, low q∞ → high angle of attack, high CL • U2 AR ~ 14.3 U2 F-15 • Flies at high speed (and lower altitudes), so high q∞ → low angle of attack, low CL • F-15 AR ~ 3

  46. REALLY HIGH ASPECT RATIO • L/D ratios can be over 50! • Aspect ratio can be over 40 • All out attempt to reduce induced drag • What we learned from the '24 regarding boundary layer control led us to believe that we could move the trip line back onto the control surfaces and still be "practical".

  47. EXAMPLE: NASA HELIOS • Helios: Proof-of-concept solar-electric flying wing, designed to operate at extremely high altitudes for long duration, remotely piloted aircraft, AR = 31:1 • Helios Prototype designed to fly at altitudes of up to 100,000 feet on single-day atmospheric science and imaging missions, as well as perform multi-day telecommunications relay missions at altitudes from 50,000 to 65,000 feet. • Helios Prototype set world altitude record for winged aircraft, 96,863 feet, during a flight in August 2001 • Flight at 100,000 ft. is quite similar to that expected in the Martian atmosphere, so data obtained from the record altitude flight will also help to build NASA's technical and operational data base for future Mars aircraft designs and missions

  48. NOMINAL FLIGHT • Wingspan: 247 ft, Chord: 8ft, Wing Thickness: 12% of Chord, Wing Area: 1,976 ft2 • Airspeed: 19 to 27 MPH cruise at low altitudes, up to 170 MPH at extreme altitude • Altitude: Up to 100,000 ft., typical endurance mission at 50,000 to 70,000 ft. • Aspect Ratio: 30.9

  49. EXAMPLE: NASA HELIOS This view of the Helios Prototype from a chase helicopter shows abnormally high wing dihedral of more than 30 feet from wingtip to the center of the aircraft that resulted after the Helios entered moderate air turbulence on its last test flight. The extreme dihedral caused aerodynamic instability that led to an uncontrollable series of pitch oscillations and over-speed conditions, resulting in structural failures and partial breakup of the aircraft.

  50. EXAMPLE: NASA HELIOS, JUNE 26, 2003